79 terms

BIO 2211

Toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; above
Away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below
Ventral (anterior)
Toward or at the front of the body; in front of
Dorsal (posterior)
Toward or at the back of the body; behind
Toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of
Away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of
Between a more medial and a more lateral structure
Closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
Farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
Superficial (external)
Toward or at the body surface
Deep (internal)
Away from the body surface; more internal
Gross anatomy
The study of macroscopic body structures
Those that are visible to the naked eye or by using a hand lens
Systemic anatomy
Studied where body parts are organized according to functions so that those with common functions are studied together
Regional anatomy
All the structures in a specific body region are studied together
Surface anatomy
The study of form and markings of the body's surface, especially as they relate to internal structures
Microscopic anatomy
Is concerned with minute body structures and requires a microscope
Developmental anatomy
The study of changes that occur as the body grows and differentiates from single cell into adult form
Basic reference system
Structural units
Cell membrane chemical composition
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)
Contains ribosomes used for protein synthesis.
Synthesizes membranes used for its maintenance and repair.
Synthesizes secretory proteins such as antibodies.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)
Synthesizes phospholipids, cholesterol, and steroids.
Stores and releases calcium ions needed for muscle contraction
Detoxifies drugs
Convert food energy into ATP energy
Has inner folds called cristae
Have their own DNA
Golgi Apparatus
Process and package synthesized macromolecules for transport to the cell membrane
Non-membranous sacs located adjacent to the ER and the Golgi Bodies containing hydrolytic enzymes
Made when the need to dispose of waste arises
Membranous organelle
Used for food storage and waste removal
Store and remove toxic hydrogen peroxide solution
Center for protein synthesis
Gel-like material that holds all the organelles within the cell except the nucleus
Consists of organelles, fibers, storage vesicles, and a mesh of transport tubes
Consists of an intricate organizational network of microtubules and filaments that provide structural support and form interconnecting network that enables the movement of molecules all over the cell
Long fiber-like strands that participate in contraction as well as movement
Provide structural support and movements by forming the framework or cytoskeleton of the cell
Part of the microtubule-organizing center
Possibly direct the activity of cilia and flagella
Control center of the cell
Contains the genetic material, DNA, which codes for synthesis of protein and is responsible for the transfer of inheritance.
Center of synthesis of nucleic acids
Nuclear Membrane
Surrounds the nucleus
Nuclear Pores
Openings in the nuclear membrane used for the exit of RNA into the cytoplasm following transcription of the genetic codes for DNA
Thread-like granules that contain DNA and RNA
Coiled and condensed bar-like bodies of chromatins
Contains the genes
Extensions of the cell's interior which provides movement
Short cellular projections with functions associated with removing particles or moving of water over surfaces such as tissues
Found in the windpipe and sensory cells of the ear
Epithelial Tissue
Covers surfaces, lines cavities, and forms glands
Homogeneous (1 type of cells)
Outer layer of the skin, forms the lining of the intestinal tract, urinary, and respiratory passages, blood vessels, uterus, and other body cavities
Supported by connective tissue
Avascular but innervated
Simple Squamous Epithelia
Functions in diffusion and filtration
Found in blood vessels and uterine tubes
Simple Cuboidal Epithelia
Functions in secretion and absorption
Found in kidney tubules and ovary
Simple Columnar Epithelia
Facilitate movement
Found in bronchioles and uterine tubes
Stratified Squamous Epithelia
Protects underlying tissues in areas subjected to abrasion
Found in lining of esophagus, mouth and vagina
Stratified Cuboidal Epithelia
Function is protection
Found in the largest ducts of sweat glands, mammary glands, and salivary glands
Stratified Columnar Epithelia
Functions include protection and secretion
Found in the male urethra, and in large ducts of some glands
Rare in the human body
Transitional Epithelia
Stretches readily
Lines the ureters, urinary bladder, and part of the urethra
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelia
Function includes secretion, particularly of mucus
Found in the trachea
Epithelial tissue specialized to produce molecules for use in the body
Exocrine Glands
Have ducts or tubes to carry secretions away from the glands
Made up of similar cells
Either simple or multicellular
Endocrine Glands
Depend on blood flowing through the gland to carry secretions to another organ
Secretions are known as hormones
Connective Tissue
Supporting cells of all parts of the body
Usually heterogenous populations of cells
Functions include binding and support, protection, insulation, and transportation
Embryonic Connective Tissue
Gives rise to all other connective tissue types
Primarily found in the embryo
Areolar Loose Connective Tissue
Wraps and cushions organs
Holds and conveys tissue fluid
Widely disbursed under epithelia of body
Adipose Loose Connective Tissue
Provides reserve fuel
Insulates against heat loss
Supports and protects organs
Found under the skin, around the kidneys and eyeballs, in breasts
Reticular Loose Connective Tissue
Supports other cell types including white blood cells, mast cells, and macrophages
Found in lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, bone marrow, and spleen)
Dense Regular Connective Tissue
Attaches muscle to bone or other muscles or bone to bone
Found in tendons, most ligaments, and aponeuroses
Elastic Dense Connective Tissue
Allows recoiling of tissue following stretching
Maintains pulsating flow of blood through arteries
Found in walls of large arteries
Dense Irregular Connective Tissue
Able to withstand tension exerted in many directions
Provides structural strength
Found in fibrous capsules of organs and joints
Hyaline Cartilage
Supports and reinforces
Found in costal cartilage, the nose, trachea, and larynx
Elastic Cartilage
Maintains the shape of a structure while allowing for great flexibility
Found in the external ear and epiglottis
Tensil strength with the ability to absorb compressive shock
Found in the intervertebral discs, pubic synthesis, and discs of the knees
Transport of respiratory gases, nutrients, wastes, and other substances
Found within the blood vessels
Nervous Tissue
Transmit electrical signals from sensory receptors and to effectors which control their activity
Found in the brain, spinal cord, and nerves
Skeletal Muscle
Voluntary movement
Attaches to bone or occasionally skin
Cardiac Muscle
Propels blood into the circulation
Involuntary control
Found in the walls of the heart
Smooth Muscle
Propels substances or objects along internal passageways
Involuntary control
Found mostly in the walls of hollow organs
Endocrine System
The body's second great controlling system which influences metabolic activities of cells by producing and releasing chemical substances known as hormones into the circulatory system
Is in charge of body processes that happen slowly such as cell growth, development, absorption of nutrients, energy metabolism. water & electrolyte balance, reproduction, birth, and lactation
Endocrine Glands
Composed of endocrine cells (secreting) and connective tissue surrounded by capillaries
Include the pituitary (hypophysis), thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pineal, thymus, pancreas, and gonads
Classifications of Hormones
Amines & polypeptides (proteins)
Target Cell Activation
Depends on blood levels of the hormone, relative number of receptors on the target cell, and the affinity of those receptors for the hormone
Protein Hormones
Use 2nd messenger system to cause effect on the target cell
Steroid Hormones
Freely enter the target cell and directly activate the genes
Humoral Stimuli
Secretion of hormones in direct response to changing blood levels of ions and nutrients
Neural Stimuli
Nerve fibers stimulate hormone release
Endocrine (Hormonal) Stimuli
Release of hormones in response to hormones produced by other endocrine organs
Negative Feedback Mechanism
Where internal or external stimulus triggers hormone secretion. As hormone levels rise, they cause target organ effects, which then inhibits further hormone production
Positive Feedback Mechanism
Feedback that tends to cause the level of a variable to change in the same direction as an initial change
2nd Messenger System
Protein hormones bind to receptors, which bind to G-proteins which become activated and binds to GTP, activated G-proteins activates the enzyme adenylate cyclase which generates cAMP from ATP, cAMP activates protein kinases which cause cellular effects
Direct Gene Activation
Steroid hormones diffuse into their target cell and bind with intracellular receptors, receptor-hormone complex enters the nucleus, binds to a specific region of DNA, which promotes DNA transcription to produce mRNA, which directs protein synthesis