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pulmonary circulation

carries blood between the heart and the lungs for gas exchange.

systemic circulation

carries blood between the heart and the rest of the body's tissues.


carry blood from the heart to capillary beds, where exchange occurs.


return blood to the heart


which supports and lubricates the heart during contraction.


outer layer of the heart consists of the epithelial cells and underlying fibrous connective tissues.

coronary arteries

which supply oxygen to the heart, are embedded in this layer.


the middle layer is composed of cardic muscle.


the innermost layer is made up of endothelial cells, modified epithelium that is continuous with endothelium lining the blood vessels that enter and exit the heart's chambers.

the four chambers of the heart

left and right atria and left and right ventricles.

the heart has four valves

right atrioventricular valve, pulmonary semilunar valve, left atrioventricular valve, aortic semilunar valve.

tunica adventitia

outer layer is composed of connective tissue.

tunica media

middle layer is made of smooth muscle.

tunica intima

inner layer, is composed of a single layer of endothelial cells.


capillary blood enters the smallest veins


carry blood back toward the heart


blood is composed of the fluid portion and cellular components, called the formed elements


an average adult has 5 to 6 L of blood

interstitial fluid

lymphatic fluid is derived from the fluid between cells.


is an inappropriately severe immune reaction to an otherwise harmless substance.

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