108 terms

CUL2215 Garde Manger

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Terms in this set (...)

five techniques for food preservation
curing, brining, salting, marinating, and smoking
components of a brine
SALT - adds flavor & stops bacteria growth
SUGAR - adds flavor and blances the harshness of the salt
CURING SALT - potassium nitrate (saltpeter of prague powder) retards the oxidation of fats which cause rancidity developing in stored foods
how long should product be soaked in a brine?
2 - 48 hours
maturation processes for brined meats
- cooking
- drying at 60 F - 70 F (bacon & pastrami)
- smoking (cold 50 F - 95 F, hot above 140 F)
advantages of brining
- develops more flavor
- faster than "classic" curing
- moisture is added to the food product
curing
- salt is rubbed onto the food product and then the food product is packed in more salt
- ex. prosciutto (18 months), gravlax (scandinavian for salmon)
steps in the curing process
1) wash the product
2) rub with salt
3) place in a container packed with salt
4) cure for the required legnth of time
5) wash again
6) choose maturation process
maturation processes for cured meats
- drying (60 F - 70 F)
- aging (@ 50 F)
- smoking (cold 50 F - 95 F, hot above 140 F)
smoking
- originally used as a preserving technique
- foods must be cured before they are cold smoked
main chemical components of smoke from wood
- Formeldehyde
- Alcohol
- Creosote
- Tar
what type of woods are used for smoking?
- low resin hard woods (soft woods contain excessive tar and should not be used)
- hickory, mesquite, cherry, apple, pecan
types of smoking
- fast (hot)
- slow (cold)
- pan (considered hot)
- liquid
marinade
- a seasoned liquid in which foods are soaked to absorb flavors or to become more tender
- also preserves food to a degree
components of a marinade
- acid
- oil
- spices
- aromatics
components of a salad
- foundation
- body
- garnish
- dressing
handling salad greeens
- should be purchased daily
- store 34 F- 38 F
- keep in their original package
- wash immediately before use
types of salad dressings
- vinagrette
- cream-style (fatty)
- simple
vinagrette dressing
- 3 parts oil : 1 part vinegar
- pasteurized eggs or mustard may be used as an emulsifying agent
cream-style dressing
- mayonnaise or dairy used as a base
- permanent emulsion
simple dressing
- not emulsion or blended mixture
- simple liquids that contribute moisture and flavor
- olive oil, infused oil, lemon juice, or vinegar
why must gelatin bloom?
- to have a smooth consistency
- the gelatin softens and swells so it will dissolve evenly when placed in hot water
aspic
- gelatin
- a clear, savory jelly made from clarified stock & gelatin, used to glaze cold foods
- can be cubed and used as a garnish
aspic techniques
- traditional
- modern
- quick
modern aspic technique
- consomme and gelatin
quick aspic technique
- 8-2-1 quick method
- 8 oz aspic powder, 2 oz gelatin, 1 gallon water
- can use 10 oz gelatin & 1 gallon water if no aspic powder
uses for aspic
- binder
- glue
- flavor
- preservation
- glazing
steps for using aspic
- place chilled food on coating rack
- melt and temper aspic as needed (75 F- 80 F)
- coat the food product evenly
- chill food products and repeat as needed
chaud froid sauce
- sauce made from milk and gelatin
- 1 gallon milk : 10 oz gelatin
- combine ingredients cold, heat to 150 F while constantly stirring
truffle garnishing paste
- used in dishes in which costs do not allow natural truffle to be used as a garnishment
mayonnaise collee
- sauce made from mayonnaise and aspic
- 1 : 1 ratio for extra coating purposes
- 4 : 1 ration for platter lining or coating of larger show pieces
garde manger
cold kitchen Chef, responsible for salads, salad dressings, cold appetizers, pate, and charcuterie items
three styles of forcemeat
- straight
- country
- mousseline
forcemeat
- a mixture of ground cooked or raw meats with a binder, seasoned, and emulsified with fat
- primary ingredient in charcuterie items such as pates, terrines, galantines and sausages
components of forcemeat
- nourishing element
- fat
- binder
- seasoning
what does fat contribute to forcemeat?
- flavor
- moisture
- smooth texture or grain to the mixture
gras
- fatty with meat
maigre
- lean or without meat
modern ratio of fat in forcemeat
25% fat 75% lean
how do binders affect the forcemeat mixutre?
- hold it together by giving it more structure
- give a smoother consistency
- increses the yield
five common binders
- gelatin
- aspic
- panada
- egg whites
- blood
six common fats
- egg yolks
- butter
- heavy cream
- pork fat
- salt pork
- bacon
what is a panada?
five reasons for using one?
A startch and a liquid used to:
- bind
- tenderize
- add smooth texture
- add moisture
- produce a higher yield
five types of panadas
- pain de mie or pullman loaf
- flour
- potato
- rice
- frangipane (flour panada with a small amount of egg yolk)
quatre epice
classic french spice blend
1 cinnamon, 1 nutmeg, 1 allspice, 1/2 cloves
pate spice
classic spice blend
quatre spice + 1 white pepper
chinese five spice
quatre spice + 1 ginger
pate salt
pate spice + 3 salt
forcemeat recipe
- 1 lb protein
- .25 lb fat
- 3 egg whites
- 1 cup cream
- 1 T seasoning
straight method
- refined forcemeats
- grind meat twice (fat on 2nd grind)
- transfer to food processor and add egg whites slowly
- add seasonings and finish with cream
- fold in random garnishby hand over ice or place inlay in center
country style
- coarse ground mixutre of meat, large diced meat and fat with the addition of liver (max 25%) and garnishes
- meat is ground and seasonings, binders, and random garnishes are folded in by hand
gratin
when liver is added to forcemeat
mousseline
- light, delicate and airy forcemeat usually made with fish or shellfish
- egg whites and cream added to lighten and enrich the mixture
- can be made into quenelles
- add whipped cream w/ wooden spoon, first 1/3, then remaining 2/3
mousse
- a soft and creamy food, either sweet or savory, lightened by adding whipped cream, beaten egg whites or both
- always finely ground and sieved
- nourishing element should have small amount of connective tissue
random garnish
added to contrast colors, flavors, and textures in a forcemeat
inlay
intentionally placed to contrast textures, colors, and patterns within a forcemeat
farce
stuffing
farcir
to stuff
farci
is stuffed
charcuterie
- the production of pates, terrines, galantines, sausages and crepinettes
- originally referred to pork products
eight forcemeat derivatives
- pate
- terrine
- pate en croute
- galantine
- ballottine
- quenelle
- sausage
- mousse (raw or cooked)
pate
- smooth or coarse forcemeat
- metal or cast iron mold
- mold is oiled and line w/ plastic
- cooked in water bath at 350 degrees
terrine
- smooth or coarse forcemeat
- earthenware or ceramic mold
- mold is oiled and lined with plastice wrap
- cooked in water bath at 350 degrees
pate en croute
- pate encased in dough
- chimney inserted through the dough
- dry baked in a spring form pan
- cooled and filled with aspic
- bake very hot for 15 minutes and then reduce oven temp to 350 - 375 and cook to 150
role of the chimney
- allow steam to escape
- check temperature with a probe
- allow for expansion of fats and liquids
- allow to fill with aspic
galantine
- made from poultry or fish wrapped in it's own skin
- poached
- cool in liquid overnight
- always served cold
ballottine
- originally meat item, but can also be made from poultry or fish, wrapped in it's own skin
- braised
- served hot or cold as an app or entree
sausage
- forcemeat in a man made or natural casing
- can be smoked, cured, dried or cooked
- must meet internal temp of 165
saucisse
smaller sausage, usually fresh
saucisson
larger sausage, usually dried, cured or smoked
caul fat
- mesenteric lining of the abdominal cavity of sheep and pigs
- pork is of superior quality
crepinette
oval sausage encased in caul fat
zampone
- sausage encased in a pig's trotter
- pied de cochon
raw mousse
- bound with egg whites or panada
- egg yolks or heavy cream used as fat
- placed in timbale or mold before cooking
- poached or cooked in a hot water bath
- served hot or cold
cooked mousse
- nourishing element is cooked first and cooled
- add cream and blend well
- bound with aspic, gelatin or veloute
- molded and chilled before use
- no additional cooking required
- served cold
quenelle
- football shaped fine forcemeat
- formed w/ one or two spoons
- poached in stock
- served hot or cold, as a garnish, entree, or appetizer
three considerations for shaping quenelles
- ability to use spoons
- consistency of the forcemeat
- legnth of cooking time
seven guidelines for prepping quenelles
- cold room
- cold food products
- clean utensils
- do not overwork the food
- work over an ice bath
- keep all grinding equipment frozen
- keep clean
repercussion of overcooking forcemeat
- excessive shrinking
hors d'oeuvre
- "outside the work"
- very small portion of hot or cold foods served before a meal to stimulate the appetite or at a social gathering in lieu of a meal
three classifications of hors d'oeuvres
- single
- hors d'oeuvres varies
- finger foods
single hors d'oeuvres
- hot or cold
- individual portion
- uniformity is key
- ex. shrimp cocktail
hors d'oeuvres varies
- an assortment of hors d'oeuvres that can be presented on a plate/platter, guerridon or ravier
ravier
- a shallow dish made of china, glass or crystal
- traditionally holds 8 portions divided
canape
- "sofa"
- to be eaten in one or two bites
- great way to use leftovers
- 8-10 canapes per person per hour
four elements of a canape
- base
- spread
- nourishing element
- garnish
base
- shapes of bases vary to identify the type of canape
- tartlet (round)
- barquette (boat)
spread
- used to enhance flavor, add moisture and to support the nourishing element
nourishing element
- main component which contributes texture, color, and flavor
- should be light and simple
- smoked or spice crusted products are excellent
-FOCAL POINT OF THE CANAPE
garnish
- decorative but edible, used to enhance the appearane, color, texture, and flavor
- SHOULD NOT BE AN AFTERTHOUGHT
zakuski
the meal before the meal
salpicon
- diced mixture bound w/ an appropriate sauce
- hot uses veluoute or bechamel
- cold uses mayonnaise
crudite
raw vegetables served with a dip
bouchette
bite-sized puff pastry
bouchee
puff pastry 3 inches in diameter
vol-au-vent
puff pastry shell that serves 6-8 people
finger foods
- bite size
- hot or cold
- can be served before the meal
amuse-bouche
- "something that amuses the mouth"
- a small, savory portoin of food served before a meal
considerations in platter design
- platter size
- flow of buffet traffic
- practice layout
- line and decorate
- no food on the border
- borderless platters must have an imaginary border
3 roles of a platter blueprint
- establish space requirements
- determine proper size and shape of garnishes
- ensure use of diverse shapes, heights, and color contrast
grosse piece
- unsliced piece of meat on the platter
- no more than 1/3 total original size
5 elements of a platter
- main piece
- utilization piece
- enhancing salad
- garnish
- cold sauce
6 rules of platter layout
- maintain a frame
- keep foods at least 1 inch from the edge
- don't under or over crowd the platter
- confim the order and alignment of sliced foods
- DON'T MIX MEAT AND SEAFOOD
- equal amounts of food/space in each quarter
ice dimensions
- 300 lbs
- 40 x 20 x 10
ice tempering temp
- relatively cool
- 40 - 68
tank ice
- contains air bubbles and impurities shaped like a feather in the center
clinebell ice
- new concept
- crystal clear
- more expensive
11 ice carving tools
- safety goggles
- safety gloves
- steel-toe boots
- ice tongs
- ice pick
- ice chipper (6 prong)
- chisels (flat, v- shaped)
- hand saws
- chain saws
- power hand tools
- template
mending breaks
- place the broken piece back on the ice carving and refreeze
- apply bubble gum remover
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