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Wade Davis Bill

an 1864 plan for Reconstruction that denied the right to vote or hold office for anyone who had fought for the Confederacy...Lincoln refused to sign this bill thinking it was too harsh.

Andrew Johnson

A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.

Political Factions

Ultra - Radicals were led by Senator Sumner and pledged for absolute equality.
Thaddeus Stevens led a less severe radical faction in the House and Ben Wade led one in the Senate.

Freedmen's Bureau

1865 - Organization run by the army to care for and protect southern Blacks after the Civil War

Civil Rights Act

In 1866 the Civil Rights Act was created to grant citizenship to blacks and it was an attempt to prohibit the black codes. Just a political move used to attract more votes. It led to the creation and passing of the 14th amendment.

10% Plan

This was Lincoln's reconstruction plan for after the Civil War. Written in 1863, it proclaimed that a state could be reintegrated into the Union when 10% of its voters in the 1860 election pledged their allegiance to the U.S. and pledged to abide by emancipation, and then formally erect their state governments. This plan was very lenient to the South, would have meant an easy reconstruction.

Johnson's plan for Reconstruction

Majority of white men must swear oath of loyalty, new government must ban slaver and ratify 13th Amendment, Confederate officials may vote and hold office

Thirteenth Amendment

1865 - Freed all slaves, abolished slavery.

Fourteenth Amendment

made "all persons born or naturalized in the United States" citizens of the country

Fifteenth Amendment

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

Reconstruction Acts

1867 - Pushed through congress over Johnson's veto, it gave radical Republicans complete military control over the South and divided the South into five military zones, each headed by a general with absolute power over his district.

Tenure of Office Act

1866 - enacted by radical congress - forbade president from removing civil officers without senatorial consent - reason behind Johnson's impeachment


Southerners willing to cooperate with the Republicans because they accepted the results of the war and wished to advance their own interests.


Northerners who went to the South as idealists to help the freed slaves, as employees of the federal government, or more commonly as settlers hoping to improve themselves

Reconstruction Era

period after the Civil war when the US was trying to rebuild the South (physically) and the country ("symbolically")

Black Codes

Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves

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