125 terms

Music 219

STUDY
PLAY
melody
succession of single tones or pitches perceived by the mind as unity (tune/line, horizontal)
interval
distance and relationship between 2 pitches/tones
pitch
highness or lowness of a tone, depending on the frequency
range
distance between the highest and lowest tones of a melody, instrument or voice-span of pitches
conjunct
smooth, connected melody that moves principally by small intervals (stepwise, no leaps)
disjunct
disjointed or disconnected melody with many leaps
phrase
musical unit, a component of a melody (like a sentence-units of melodies)
cadence
resting place in a musical phrase, musical punctuation (resting point at end of phrase)
question phrase
sounds incomplete
answer phrase
sounds complete
terms for quality of melody (2)
1. conjunct 2. disjunct
countermelody
an accompanying melody sounded against the principal melody
counterpoint
the art of combining in a single texture 2 or more melodic lines-MUSICAL LINE AGAINST ANOTHER-TO UNITE POLYPHONIC
harmony
the simultaneous combination of notes and the ensuing relationships of intervals and chords (vertical element)-gives depth
chord
simultaneous combination of 3 or more tones that constitute a single block of harmony
scale
series of tones in ascending or descending order-PRESENTATION OF ALL NOTES IN KEY IN ORDER
octave
interval between 2 tones 7 diatonic pitches apart-purest interval
triad
common chord type, consisting of 3 pitches built on alternate tones of the scale (3 notes sounding at once)
tonic chord
triad built on the first scale tone (sounds complete)-"do" home base ROMAN NUMERAL I
tonality
principle organization around central tone, or home, pitch, based on a major or minor scale
major scale
contains 7 different tones that comprise a specific pattern of whole and half steps *3rd degree raised half a step-HAPPY SOUNDING
minor scale
7 different tones that comprise a specific pattern of whole and half steps. *3rd degree lowered half a step-SAD SOUNDING
diatonic
melody or harmony built from the 7 tones of a major or minor scale. encompasses patterns of 7 whole tones and semitones-PITCHES IN MAJOR/MINOR SCALE
chromatic
melody or harmony built from many 12 semitones of the octave, ascending and descending sequence of semitones-PITCHES OUTSIDE OF SCALE (playing in minor ending on major)
dissonance
combination of tones that sounds discordant and unstable, in need of resolution (clashing harmony)-TENSION
consonance
concordant or harmonious combo of tones that provides a sense of relaxation and stability in music (pleasing harmony ex. triad)-RELAXATION
dominant chord
(strongest pull back to tonic) ROMAN NUMERAL V
half cadence
ends on dominant, question phrase
authentic cadence
ends on tonic, answer phrase
texture
interweaving of melodic and harmonic elements
monophonic
single line texture or melody (1 melody no harmony or accompany)
polyphonic
2 or more melodic lines combined into a multivoiced texture (several melodies or lines combined-2 INDEPENDENT MELODIC LINES JOINED)
homophonic
texture with principle melody and accompanying harmony (1. tune & accompany 2. homorhythm)
types of polyphonic/counterpoint
1. imitative 2. non-imitative
imitation
melodic idea presented in one voice and then restated in another (copy-cat)
canon
type of polyphonic composition that is strictly imitation only
tune and accompaniment
homophonic: melody w/ subordinate accompaniment
homorhythm
homophonic: multiple melodies of same rhythm together, move together
types of harmony (2)
1. consonance 2. dissonance
rhythm
what moves music forward in time-movement
beat
basic unit of rhythm-pulse that divides time into equal segments
meter
organization of beats-marked off in measures-organizes the flow
measure
contains a fixed # of beats, 1st beat usually receives strongest accent
duple meter
alternate strong beat with weak beat one-two-one-two
triple meter
3 beats to a measure-1 strong 2 weak beats
quadruple meter
4 beats to measure-primary accent on 1st beat and secondary accent on 3rd
upbeat
begins on the last beat of the measure (beat before downbeat)
syncopation
deliberate upsetting of the normal pattern of accentuation-accent shifted to a weak beat-throws off regular pattern
form
structure/shape via repetition, contrast and variation
strophic form
sung in verses
variation
between repetition and contrast, some aspects are altered but original is recognizable-TAKE THEME THEN VARY IT
binary form
statement and departure w/o return to opening II:A:II:B:II A:1-5 B:5-1
ternary form
statement and departure w/ return to opening A-B-A
theme
melody building blocks into larger work-TOPIC OF MELODY
sequence
repetition where idea is restated in higher or lower pitch
motive
melody or theme broken into component parts-smallest fragment-forms melodic-rhythmic unit
movement
division of large scale work (stand alone piece of work)
timbre
differences in the sound quality of instruments
register
specific area in range of an instrument or voice (low, middle, high)
a capella
voices only, no instrumental accompaniment
voice
a single line of music, you sing with it
part
a single line of music, music for a certain instrument to perform
instrumental music
no voices only instruments
string instruments
chordophones (bowed and plucked), violin, viola, violoncella, double bass
woodwind instruments
aerophones
brass instruments
aerophones: trumpet, French horn, trombone, tuba
embouchure
oral mechanism of lips, lower facial muscles, and jaw for brass instrument playing
percussion
idiophones and membranophones
chamber music
ensemble music for small groups, one player per part
orchestra
any performing body of diverse instruments
genre
categories of music
style
distinctive features of artwork
symphony
genre of 4 movement orchestral work
gregorian chant
single melody, monophonic (no harmony or counterpoint), NONMETRIC
direct chant
sung straight through
responsorial chant
alternate between soloist and choir
antiphonal chant
2 choirs singing from different places in church
nonmetric
no rhythm-sing like you speak
1. syllabic 2. melismatic 3. neumatic
text setting (3)
syllabic
one note per syllable
melismatic
many notes to one syllable
neumatic
2-3 notes per syllable
proper mass
changes daily
ordinal mass
used everyday in every mass
organum
polyphonic music, addition of 2nd voice to Gregorian melody at interval of 5th or 4th
motet
polyphonic d/t addition of new texts to melismatic organum (PIECE EXTRACTED FROM ORGANUM & GIVEN OWN WORDS FOR 2 UPPER VOICES)
requiem mass
mass for dead/funeral DIES IRAE
1. kyrie 2. gloria 3. credo 4. sanctus 5. agnus dei
parts of mass (5)
plagal cadence
"amen"
mass
daily service concluding in the Eucharist
liturgy
prescribed set of words, songs, prayers, and actions in public church service
kyrie
melismatic ordinal mass
credo
syllabic mass portion
plianchant sang at funeral
Dies Irae
strophic form
in verses
rondeau, ballade, virelei
poetic forms in secular monophony
half step
2 notes next to each other
whole step
2 notes with one in the middle
flat
half step DOWN
sharp
half step UP
key
a set of notes that focus on a tonic pitch
1st note in scale
tonic note
5th note in scale
dominant note
related key
key different by 1 note of less (ex. 1#)
major scale notation
wwhwwwh
minor scale notation
whwwhww
relative minor
same keys in major and minor scales
purest interval
4, 5, 8 intervals
major/minor intervals
2, 3, 6, 7
downbeat
strong beat of measure at beginning of group
andante
walking speed
moderato
moderate
adagio
slow
largo
slower than adagio (very slow)
grave
dead slow
alegro
fast
vivace
lively
presto
very fast
1. grave 2. largo 3. adagio 4. andante 5. moderato 6. alegro 7. vivace 8. presto
order of tempo from slowest to fastest (8 speeds)
piano
soft
forte
loud
1. pianissimo 2. piano 3. mezzo piano 4. mezzo forte 5. forte 6. fortissimo
order of dynamics in order from softest to loudest
chanson
French polyphonic song
tempo
rate or speed of music
dynamics
loudness or softness music is played at