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74 terms

Physical Education Glossary

Terms and Definitions
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absolute strength
A measure of how much weight one can lift regardless of body weight and size; the maximum amount a person can lift in one repetition
aerobic
With oxygen
agility
The ability to move the body quickly and easily and start, stop, and move the body quickly in different directions with speed and accuracy
anaerobic
Without oxygen
aorta
The largest artery in the body; it delivers oxygenated (oxygen-rich) blood to body
artery
A blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart
athlete
A person who participates regularly in a sport
balance
The ability to maintain equilibrium while still or moving; an equal distribution of weight so as not to fall over
baseline activity
An activity that requires little to no work or energy
biomechanics
The study of movement of a living body, including how muscles, bones, tendons and ligaments work together to produce movement
blood
The fluid pumped through the body by the heart that carries oxygen and nutrients to the tissues
blood vessel
A tube in the body that transports blood, nutrients, oxygen, and waste material; arteries, veins, arterioles, or capillaries
body composition
The proportion of body fat to lean muscle
calorie
A measure of the amount of energy that the body uses while performing an activity; a measure of energy expenditure
cardio
Cardio is short for cardiovascular exercise which is exercise that raises your heart rate and keeps it elevated for a period of time
cardiorespiratory endurance
The ability of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems to efficiently supply nutrients and oxygen to the body during sustained physical activity without fatigue
cardiorespiratory system
Composed of the circulatory (cardiovascular) and respiratory systems, the bodily system made up of the lungs, heart, and blood vessels
circuit training
A form of training that involves moving quickly through a sequence of different exercises with little rest in between each exercise to improve overall performance; a circuit is one completion of all exercises in the sequence
circulatory system
Also called the cardiovascular system; the bodily system that functions to move blood and lymph throughout the body
coordination
The ability to perform complex movements; skillful and effective interaction of movements
cross training
A form of training that involves training in different ways using different exercises to improve overall performance
defense
Protection or resistance against attack; The team on defense is in the act of preventing an opponent from scoring points or goals
dehydration
Excessive loss of body fluid that occurs when the body loses more fluids than it takes in
depression
A common mental disorder characterized by prolonged feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and gloom
electrolyte
A compound or solution that conducts electricity
endurance
The ability or strength to continue or last, especially despite fatigue, stress ; stamina
energy
The ability to do work
exercise
The act of improving one's body through some type of movement; a purposeful, planned type of structured physical activity that uses extra energy to improve health
fitness
The ability of the heart, lungs, and muscles to function efficiently and effectively
flexibility
The ability of your joints to move through a full range of motion
force
A push or pull applied on a body or object
globalization
Interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations
health-enhancing activity
Activity that requires enough work or energy that if done regularly can help improve health
health-related fitness
A health-focused fitness program that aims to improve functioning of the muscles, lungs, or heart
heart
The muscular organ of the cardiorespiratory system that functions as a pump to maintain the circulation of blood through the body
heart rate
The number of heart beats per unit time, usually per minute
heat exhaustion
An illness that ccurs when body fluids are lost through sweating and dehydration, causing the body to overheat; if not treated can progress to a heat stroke
heat stroke
A life-threatening illness that occurs when the body is exposed to an excessive amount of heat and its cooling system stops working causing the internal body temperature rises to the point where damage to internal organs may result
intensity
The level of effort required by a person to do an activity
joint
The location where two or more bones come together
ligament
The tough tissue that connects one bone to another
lung
Either of the two sac-like respiratory organs used for the exchange of gases in the body; organ that enables you to breathe air
maximum heart rate
The fastest rate at which your heart will beat in one minute
muscle
The tissue composed of cells or fibers, that contract to produce movement
muscular endurance
The muscle's ability to continue to perform without fatigue; a measure of how well a muscular group performs repeated movements for extended periods of time
muscular strength
The muscle's ability to generate force in a short period of time
nervous system
The bodily system made up of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves that functions to regulate and coordinate all the body's activities
offense
The act of attacking or engaging the opposing team ; the team on offense is in the act of trying to scoring points or goals
official
One who administers the rules of a game or sport and the authority to make decisions about plays such as a referee
physical activity
Any form of exercise or movement of the body that results in the body's use of energy
physical fitness
The ability of the heart, lungs, and muscles to function efficiently and effectively
power
The rate at which one uses the body to perform work; The amount of force a muscle can exert
pulse
The regular throbbing of the arteries, caused by the contractions of the heart
reaction time
The amount of time between an action and the reaction or response to it
relative strength
A measure of how much one can lift after adjusting for size and body weight
repetition
A repeated action, rep ie. for two repetitions you perform the action two times
resistance
A specific opposing force that causes the muscles to contract with the expectation of increasing strength, mass, endurance, and/or tone
respiration
The process of breathing where oxygen gas is taken in and carbon dioxide is released; complex series of chemical reactions where sugars are broken down to release energy
respiratory system
The bodily system responsible for gas exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen between the body and the environment; part of the cardiorespiratory system
sedentary
Physically inactive
set
A group of repetitions
skill-related fitness
The type fitness used to reach specific performance or skill-related goals
speed
The ability to perform a task or movement in a short period of time; to go or move fast
sport
An organized, competitive, and skillful physical activity
sportsmanship
A commitment to fair play, ethical behavior, and integrity, following the rules of the game, respecting the judgment of referees and officials, and treating opponents and officials with respect
sprain
An injury to a ligament
strain
An injury to a muscle or joint
strength training
Any form of exercise or movement performed to increase overall physical strength
stress
The body's reaction to a change that requires a physical, mental or emotional adjustment or response
stretch
A form of exercise that increases or maintains flexibility
target heart rate
The optimum heart rate at which person should train in order to achieve desired results
technology
Tools and/or machines produced as a result of processes in which humans use science and knowledge to create things to better help them understand and control something
tendon
The tissue or structure in the body that connects muscle to bone
vein
A blood vessel that transports blood to the heart