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Terms and Definitions

absolute strength

A measure of how much weight one can lift regardless of body weight and size; the maximum amount a person can lift in one repetition


With oxygen


The ability to move the body quickly and easily and start, stop, and move the body quickly in different directions with speed and accuracy


Without oxygen


The largest artery in the body; it delivers oxygenated (oxygen-rich) blood to body


A blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart


A person who participates regularly in a sport


The ability to maintain equilibrium while still or moving; an equal distribution of weight so as not to fall over

baseline activity

An activity that requires little to no work or energy


The study of movement of a living body, including how muscles, bones, tendons and ligaments work together to produce movement


The fluid pumped through the body by the heart that carries oxygen and nutrients to the tissues

blood vessel

A tube in the body that transports blood, nutrients, oxygen, and waste material; arteries, veins, arterioles, or capillaries

body composition

The proportion of body fat to lean muscle


A measure of the amount of energy that the body uses while performing an activity; a measure of energy expenditure


Cardio is short for cardiovascular exercise which is exercise that raises your heart rate and keeps it elevated for a period of time

cardiorespiratory endurance

The ability of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems to efficiently supply nutrients and oxygen to the body during sustained physical activity without fatigue

cardiorespiratory system

Composed of the circulatory (cardiovascular) and respiratory systems, the bodily system made up of the lungs, heart, and blood vessels

circuit training

A form of training that involves moving quickly through a sequence of different exercises with little rest in between each exercise to improve overall performance; a circuit is one completion of all exercises in the sequence

circulatory system

Also called the cardiovascular system; the bodily system that functions to move blood and lymph throughout the body


The ability to perform complex movements; skillful and effective interaction of movements

cross training

A form of training that involves training in different ways using different exercises to improve overall performance


Protection or resistance against attack; The team on defense is in the act of preventing an opponent from scoring points or goals


Excessive loss of body fluid that occurs when the body loses more fluids than it takes in


A common mental disorder characterized by prolonged feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and gloom


A compound or solution that conducts electricity


The ability or strength to continue or last, especially despite fatigue, stress ; stamina


The ability to do work


The act of improving one's body through some type of movement; a purposeful, planned type of structured physical activity that uses extra energy to improve health


The ability of the heart, lungs, and muscles to function efficiently and effectively


The ability of your joints to move through a full range of motion


A push or pull applied on a body or object


Interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations

health-enhancing activity

Activity that requires enough work or energy that if done regularly can help improve health

health-related fitness

A health-focused fitness program that aims to improve functioning of the muscles, lungs, or heart


The muscular organ of the cardiorespiratory system that functions as a pump to maintain the circulation of blood through the body

heart rate

The number of heart beats per unit time, usually per minute

heat exhaustion

An illness that ccurs when body fluids are lost through sweating and dehydration, causing the body to overheat; if not treated can progress to a heat stroke

heat stroke

A life-threatening illness that occurs when the body is exposed to an excessive amount of heat and its cooling system stops working causing the internal body temperature rises to the point where damage to internal organs may result


The level of effort required by a person to do an activity


The location where two or more bones come together


The tough tissue that connects one bone to another


Either of the two sac-like respiratory organs used for the exchange of gases in the body; organ that enables you to breathe air

maximum heart rate

The fastest rate at which your heart will beat in one minute


The tissue composed of cells or fibers, that contract to produce movement

muscular endurance

The muscle's ability to continue to perform without fatigue; a measure of how well a muscular group performs repeated movements for extended periods of time

muscular strength

The muscle's ability to generate force in a short period of time

nervous system

The bodily system made up of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves that functions to regulate and coordinate all the body's activities


The act of attacking or engaging the opposing team ; the team on offense is in the act of trying to scoring points or goals


One who administers the rules of a game or sport and the authority to make decisions about plays such as a referee

physical activity

Any form of exercise or movement of the body that results in the body's use of energy

physical fitness

The ability of the heart, lungs, and muscles to function efficiently and effectively


The rate at which one uses the body to perform work; The amount of force a muscle can exert


The regular throbbing of the arteries, caused by the contractions of the heart

reaction time

The amount of time between an action and the reaction or response to it

relative strength

A measure of how much one can lift after adjusting for size and body weight


A repeated action, rep ie. for two repetitions you perform the action two times


A specific opposing force that causes the muscles to contract with the expectation of increasing strength, mass, endurance, and/or tone


The process of breathing where oxygen gas is taken in and carbon dioxide is released; complex series of chemical reactions where sugars are broken down to release energy

respiratory system

The bodily system responsible for gas exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen between the body and the environment; part of the cardiorespiratory system


Physically inactive


A group of repetitions

skill-related fitness

The type fitness used to reach specific performance or skill-related goals


The ability to perform a task or movement in a short period of time; to go or move fast


An organized, competitive, and skillful physical activity


A commitment to fair play, ethical behavior, and integrity, following the rules of the game, respecting the judgment of referees and officials, and treating opponents and officials with respect


An injury to a ligament


An injury to a muscle or joint

strength training

Any form of exercise or movement performed to increase overall physical strength


The body's reaction to a change that requires a physical, mental or emotional adjustment or response


A form of exercise that increases or maintains flexibility

target heart rate

The optimum heart rate at which person should train in order to achieve desired results


Tools and/or machines produced as a result of processes in which humans use science and knowledge to create things to better help them understand and control something


The tissue or structure in the body that connects muscle to bone


A blood vessel that transports blood to the heart

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