AP US History Chapter 6

Important terms, events and people from chapter 6
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French and Indian War (1754-1763)
The French and Indian War is the war between the French and English in North American from 1754 to 1763. This was the last of the Anglo-French colonial wars. The war started in North America. It was fought mainly on the frontiers of the English colonies and New France. The French were defeated.
Albany Conference on 1754
Meeting of colonial leaders from 9 of the 13 colonies to discuss with the Iroquois Indians a possible alliance against France and Spain. The conference was called to determine better relationships with the Native Americans and common defensive measures against the French. The delegates spent most of their time discussing Benjamin Franklin's Plan of Union. No alliance was made with the Iroquois and they stormed out of the meeting. The colonists also tried to find a way to set up defenses.
Ohio Valley Conflict
France and England both tried to claim Ohio Valley, in 1754 George Washington was sent to expel the French from the territory. He was forced to surrender his troops in Ohio to French forces. Considered to be the first battle of the French and Indian War.
Ben Franklin
Highly respected scientist, one of the wealthiest men in Pennsylvania. helped found UPENN, served as agent in london, and Pennsylvania, became convinced the colonies needed to revolt. Served as ambassador to france during the war, helped write the declaration of independence, constitution, and helped negotiate the peace treaty ending the revolution
Benjamin Franklin's Plan of Union
Introduced at the Albany conference in 1754. This plan purposed that Indian affairs, western settlement and other items of mutual concerns under the control of one goverment. The one government would consist of a president- general,
The Treaty of Paris
The formal end to British hostility towards France and Spain in February of 1763. France lost all their possessions on the mainland of North America as a result of this treaty.The Spanish gave up Florida to keep their colonies in the Caribbean.
William Pitt
He Became the Prime Minister 1757. The Prime Minister of England during the French and Indian War. He increased the British troops and military supplies in the colonies to 50,000 men and subsidized the Prussian forces to fight only in Europe.Captured Louisburg in 1758.
Fort Duquesne
In 1754, the Virginia government dispatched 22-year-old Lieutenant Colonel George Washington with 150 men to an area near the forks of the Ohio River in modern-day Pennsylvania, where the French were building a fortified post named Fort Duquesne. Washington hoped to prevent the French from completing the fort, and to develop the fort for the British. However, before Washington and his troops reached the Fort, they came into contact with a small contingent of French and Huron Indians in the woods. After a bloody battle, the French and Indians emerged as victors. They allowed Washington to retreat with what was left of his troops. This battle marked the beginning of the French and Indian War. The English never took the fort.
Pontiac's Rebellion
An Indian uprising in 1763 after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottowa chief named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed.
Germ Wars
The English gave the Indians small pox covered blankets. The Indians were not able to fight off the disease.
Royal Proclamation of 1763
The British set aside the region west of the Appalachian Mountains as "Indian Country" . They intended for several Indian tribes to live on the land under their protection from other Europeans.
Whigs
The name used by advocates of colonial resistance to British measures during the 1760s and 1770s.
Republicanism
The belief that government should be based on the consent of the people; people exercise their power by voting for political representatives. Influenced the political behavior in American during the 18th and 19th century.
Sugar Act
Law passed in 1764 to raise revenue in the American colonies. It lowered the tax from 6 pence to 3 pence per gallon on molasses from overseas. It also increased the restrictions on colonial commerce.
Stamp Act
The Stamp act was passed in 1765. This put an extra tax on stamped papers for legal documents, publications and playing cards. The Stamp Act was repealed in 1766.
Stamp Act Crisis
The Stamp act was passed at a time where the colonists were facing a slow economy. They felt burdened by the tax.
Virtual Representation
The notion that parliamentary members represented the interests of the nation as a whole, not those of the particular district that elected them.
Actual Representation
The practice whereby elected representatives normally reside in their districts and are directly responsive to the local interests
Non-important Movement
A tactical means of putting economic stress on Britain by refusing to buy their exports in the colonies.
Declaratory Act
Law passed in 1776 to accompany repeal of the Stamp Act that stated that Parliament had the authority to legislate for the colonies in all cases. This gave Parliament the full authority to make binding laws in the colonies.
Townshend Revenue Act
Acts of Parliament passed in 1767 imposing taxes on colonial tea, lead, paint,paper and glass.
Sons of Liberty
Secret organizations formed within the colonies to oppose the Stamp Act.
Daughters of Liberty
An organization formed by women prior to the American Revolution They got together to protest treatment of the colonies by their British Rulers
Tea Act of 1773
Allowed East India Company to avoid navigation taxes when exporting tea to colonies and gave them power to monopolize tea trade; this angered colonists and threatened merchants and the colonial economy.
Boston Tea Party
Boston patriots organized the Boston Tea Party to protest the 1773 Tea Act. In December 1773, Samuel Adams warned Boston residents of the consequences of the Tea Act. Boston was boycotting the tea in protest of the Tea Act and would not let the ships bring the tea ashore. Finally, on the night of December 16, 1773, colonials disguised as Indians boarded the ships and threw the tea overboard. They did so because they were afraid that Governor Hutchinson would secretly unload the tea because he owned a share in the cargo.
Boston Massacre
In February of 1770, an 11 year old boy was killed when an officer opened fire on a rock-throwing protest crowd. The British troops killed 5 colonists including the boy. This was the culmination of tensions in the American colonies that had been growing since Royal troops first appeared in Massachusetts in October 1768 to enforce the heavy tax burden imposed by the Townshend Acts.
Coercive Act
A law passed by the British Parliament in responce to the Boston Tea Pary which called for the blocked of Boston Harbor until the lost tea was repaid by the colonists
Quartering Act
March 24, 1765 - Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies.
Quebec Act
Extended boundaries of Quebec and granted equal rights to Catholics and recognized legality Catholic Church in the territory; colonists feared this meant that a pope would soon oversee the colonies.
Committees of Correspondence
Organization founded by Samuel Adams consisting of a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies
First Continental Congress
The First Continental Congress convened on September 5, 1774, to protest the Intolerable Acts. The congress endorsed the Suffolk Resolves, voted for a boycott of British imports, and sent a petition to King George III, conceding to Parliament the power of regulation of commerce but stringently objecting to its arbitrary taxation and unfair judicial system.
Committee of Safety
Executive committee established by National Convention that was supposed to supervise the elimination of the "enemies of the revolution"
Minutemen
American colonial militia members who were supposed to be ready to fight at a minute's notice.
Declaration of Independence
The document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress, 4 July 1776, asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
Iroquois Confederacy
An alliance of five northeastern Indian peoples (after 1722 six) that made decisions on military and diplomatic issues through a council of representatives. Allied first with the Dutch and later with the English, it dominated W. New England.
George Washington
Virginian, patriot, general, and president. Lived at Mount Vernon. Led the Revolutionary Army in the fight for independence. First President of the United States.
John Zenger
Journalist who questioned the policies of the governor of New York in the 1700's. He was jailed; he sued, and this court case was the basis for our freedom of speech and press. He was found not guilty.
John Locke
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people. Also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
Samuel Adams
Founder of the Sons of Liberty and one of the most vocal patriots for independence; signed the Declaration of Independence
John Hancock
Nicknamed "King of the Smugglers" ; He was a wealthy Massachusetts merchant in 1776 who was important in persuading the American colonies to declare their independence from England. He was the ring leader in the plot to store gunpowder which resulted in the battles in Lexington and Concord. These battles began the American Revolution.
John Adams
2nd President of the United States (1735-1826), America's first Vice-President and second President. Sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and wrote the Massachusetts guarantee that freedom of press "ought not to be restrained."
Paul Revere
(1735-1818) American silversmith remembered for his midnight ride (celebrated in a poem by Longfellow) to warn the colonists in Lexington and Concord that British troops were coming.
Benedict Arnold
Successful American general during the Revolution who turned traitor in 1780 and joined the British cause.
Thomas Jefferson
Virginian, architect, author, governor, and president. Lived at Monticello. Wrote the Declaration of Independence. Second governor of Virgina. Third president of the United States. Designed the buildings of the University of Virginia.
King George III
The king of England from 1760 to 1820, exercised a greater hand in the government of the American colonies than had many of his predecessors. Colonists were torn between loyalty to the king and resistance to acts carried out in his name. After King George III rejected the Olive Branch Petition, the colonists came to see him as a tyrant. Blamed for loosing the 13 colonies.
Olive Branch Petition
On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances. It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.
Committee of Five
John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Robert Livingston and Roger Sherman. .They were chosen to create a document that gave reasons for separation from England (Declaration of Independence).
Continental Congress
Meeting of delegates from most of the colonies held in 1774 in response to the Coercive Acts. They endorsed Suffolk Resolves, adopted the Declaration of Rights and Grievances and agreed to establish the Continental Association.