Physical Growth and Motor Behavior (EXAM 1)


Terms in this set (...)

the continuous process that results in a change in functional capacity
Functional capacity
capability to exist in the real world
motor development
the continuous, age related movement as well as the interacting constraints in the individual, environment, and the task that drives thee changes.
motor learning
Relatively PERMANENT gains motor skill capability associated with PRACTICE or EXPERIENCE
motor control
study of the neural, physical, behavioral aspects of movement
an increase in size or body mass resulting from an increase in complete, already formed body parts
Progress toward physical maturity, the state of optimal functional integration of an individuals body systems and the ability to reproduce.
The process, occurring with the passage of time, that leads to the adaptability or full function and eventually death.
Newell's model (explanation)
Suggested that movement arises from interactions of the organism, the environment in which the movement occurs and the task to be undertaken.

any change in these factors results in a change in movement
individual constraints
A person's unique physical quality and mental characteristics ( i.e. height, weight, strength, motivation.
relative to the body structure
relative to behavioral function
Environmental constraints
constraints that exist outside the body as property of the world around us.

can be physical or sociocultural
Task constraints
include goals of a particular movement or activity, role, structure surrounding that movement or activity, and the choices of equipment.

ex. football, basketball
Longitudinal research
Study in which the same individual or group is observed performing the same tasks or behaviors on numerous occasions over a long time.
Pros of longitudinal research
Can find a lot of change
cons of longitudinal research
People might back out
Cross - sectional research
Study in which developmental change is implied by observing individuals or groups of varying ages at 1 point in time.
Pros (cross sectional research)
A lot of people in and out
Cons (cross sectional research)
Individual differences
Mixed longitudinal (sequential)
study where several age groups are observed at on one time, or over a shorter time span, permitting observation of an age span that is longer than the observation period.
Universal "stereotypical" changes
All children follow basic stages of development
each stage represents the emergence of a new universal behavior
Individual varialbility
everyone reaches the stages in their own way
it is more likely you are above or below average at a given milestone than exactly average.
maturational perspective
Genetics and hereditary are primarily responsible for motor development and the environment has little effect.
maturational prospective assumptions
Development is an eternal and innate process
driven by a biological or genetic time clock
who did maturational research
Arnold Gessell
What did Gessell say
believed that biological and evolutionary history determined the orderly and invariable sequence of development.
said maturation is controlled by a genetic clock
environmental factors only affect development temporarily.
Gessell's Research
Identical twins
1 twin receives training, 1 twin develops naturally
Gessell's developmental schedules
Cognitive, language, Motor, Social
What did Mrytle Mcgrow study
did a groth study between Johnny and jimmy

Johnny recieved training in a challenging enviornment

twin studies
Contribution (twin studies)
Belief that basic skills will materialize without fascilitation
what must take place for movement
there must be a fascilitation, for genetic the trigger from genes to push it.
who were the key researchers for the normative period
Anna Espenscade
Ruth Gaslow
G Lawrence rarick
information processing theory
The brain acts like a computer, taking in information, processing it and outputting movement
what thought is information processing based on
that environment causes development
information processing allowed for exploration of what things?
Attention, memory, feedback, variability across age.
Maturational recap
- maturation of different systems drive motor development.
- Genetic influence is of utmost importance
- Environment plays little or no influence
Interrelationships exist between the individual, the task, and the enviorment.
these interrelationships are the drivers of movement
Maturational (nervous system)
Nervous system is primary system for development
belief that development ends with puberty.
Ecological (systems)
Multiple systems are responsible for motor and development.
changes can occur throughout lifespan
Ecological perspective
perspective that movement is composed of several different contributors, without which a movement may not be possible.
What are the 2 branches of the ecological perspective
dynamic systems theory
perception - action approach