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The science that studies how characteristics get passed from parent to offspring

Genetic factors

The general guideline of traits determined by a person's DNA

Environmental factors

Those "non-biological" factors that are involved in a person's surrounding such as the nature of the person's parents, the person's friends, and the person's behavioral choices

Spiritual factors

The quality of a person's relationship with God


A section of DNA that codes for the production of a protein or a portion of protein, thereby causing a trait


A strand of DNA coiled around and supported by proteins, found in the nucleus of the cell


The duplication of a cell's chromosomes to allow daughter cells to receive the exact genetic makeup of the parent cell


The time interval between cellular reproduction


Constricted region of a chromosome and the point at which duplicate DNA strands attach themselves

Mother cell

A cell ready to begin reproduction, containing duplicate DNA and centriole


The figure produced when the chromosomes of a species during metaphase are arranged according to size

Diploid cell

A cell whose chromosomes come in homologous pairs

Haploid cells

Cells that have only one of each chromosome

Diploid chromosome number (2n)

The total number of chromosomes in a diploid cell

Haploid chromosome number (n)

The number of homologous pairs in a diploid cell


The process by which a diploid (2n) cell forms four gametes (n)


Haploid (n) cells produced by diploid cells (2n) for the purpose of reproduction


A non-cellular infectious agent that has two characteristics:
(1) It has genetic material inside a protective protein coat
(2) It cannot reproduce itself


Specialized proteins that aid in destroying infectious agents


A weakened or inactive version of a virus that stimulates the body's production of antibodies which can destroy the virus

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