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20 terms

Module 7 vocabulary

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Genetics
The science that studies how characteristics get passed from parent to offspring
Genetic factors
The general guideline of traits determined by a person's DNA
Environmental factors
Those "non-biological" factors that are involved in a person's surrounding such as the nature of the person's parents, the person's friends, and the person's behavioral choices
Spiritual factors
The quality of a person's relationship with God
Gene
A section of DNA that codes for the production of a protein or a portion of protein, thereby causing a trait
Chromosome
A strand of DNA coiled around and supported by proteins, found in the nucleus of the cell
Mitosis
The duplication of a cell's chromosomes to allow daughter cells to receive the exact genetic makeup of the parent cell
Interphase
The time interval between cellular reproduction
Centromere
Constricted region of a chromosome and the point at which duplicate DNA strands attach themselves
Mother cell
A cell ready to begin reproduction, containing duplicate DNA and centriole
Karyotype
The figure produced when the chromosomes of a species during metaphase are arranged according to size
Diploid cell
A cell whose chromosomes come in homologous pairs
Haploid cells
Cells that have only one of each chromosome
Diploid chromosome number (2n)
The total number of chromosomes in a diploid cell
Haploid chromosome number (n)
The number of homologous pairs in a diploid cell
Meiosis
The process by which a diploid (2n) cell forms four gametes (n)
Gametes
Haploid (n) cells produced by diploid cells (2n) for the purpose of reproduction
Virus
A non-cellular infectious agent that has two characteristics:
(1) It has genetic material inside a protective protein coat
(2) It cannot reproduce itself
Antibodies
Specialized proteins that aid in destroying infectious agents
Vaccine
A weakened or inactive version of a virus that stimulates the body's production of antibodies which can destroy the virus