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10th us history ch 13 15 16

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how did the civil war stimulate industrial expansion
people were already working the factories and stuff because they were making the war good for the civil war, people were going for their dreams, inventors and scientists backed up by political leaders created tons of new inventions
what inventions and discoveries made the united states ripe for industrial expansion at the time
there were many inventins made in the us, there was the telegraph invented by morse so now they could talk to people over distance. drake first found oil and they had sources for energy. then edison came along and invented many things-a phonograph, electricity was the main thing we did. there was advances in communication-telegraph, telephone by bell, they also invented ways to make producing things easier, also invented was transcontinental railroad.
how did the construction and the completion of the transcontinental railroad impact the nation and other industires
it impacted the us because now they could transport their goods and stuff all over the country. it was now alot easier and also alot faster. lower cost produciton. national markets were created. a model for big business and a way for passengers to travel.
who were Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeler and what did they do to build the united states into a major industrial company
Andrew Carnegie was a steel business man and philanthropist, he said that after you make alot of money then you should give it away. John D. Rockefeller was the person who formed the Standard Oil Company, they showed people how to do business
what are the basic premises of capitalism and social darwinism
Social Darwinism: was basically survival of the fittest. and capitalism was when wealth and the stuff you get is privately owned.
what is the difference between vertical and horizontal consolidation
vertical consolidation is when you gain control of the many different businesses that make up all phases of a product's development. Horizontal consolidation is when you own a single aspect of the business and own it all and bring it together to make the final product. horizontal was Rockefller and vertical was carnagie
what were the common conditions the average worker had to endure
the average worker ahad awful working conditions. they had to work in dirty envroemnts that were hazardous to their health. they had reallly long hours and very little pay.
how did labor unions help protect the workers
labor unions helped because all the people came together and talked about how they wanted better conditions etc.
what is laissez faire government
this is the hands-of approach to economic matters, it means that the government should play a very limited role in the government
from where did the wave of immigrants to America come during the period following Civil War
after the civil war many immigrants came from many different places. they came because of crop failures, raising taxes and famine. the main places they came from were europe. like italy russia central europe southern europe. there were also alot of people from asia
what role did these new immigrants fulfill
they were the people that did they jobs that many other people did not want to so. they were discriminated.
how did cities begin to change during the period following the Civil War
the cities started getting bigger because of all the immigrants. they lived in their own ghettos and many people lived in tenements. many people left behind the farms and moved to the cities. cities also grew upwards.
how did Plessy Vs. Ferguson provide a setback to the quest for african-american equality
plessy vs furgeson was when they passed the law "separate but equal" this law is saying that africans are still equal but they can be separated from the whites and it's legal as long as they are equal.
t: Edwin L. Drake
drilled the first productive oil well in the us at Titusville, PA
t: Alexander Graham Bell
Inventor of the telephone and founder of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company
t: Sir Henry Bessemer
English engineer and inventor of the process by which iron ore was efficiently and cheaply converted to steal
t: Andrew Carnegie
Led the enormous expansion of the American steel industry in the late 1800's and was also one of the country's most important philanthropists of the era
t: Grenville Doge
.
t: George Eastman
.
t: Thomas Edison
responsible for the phonograph, incandescent lamp, and motion picture machine
t: Cyrus Field
.
t: Henry Ford
made the ford cars
t: Samuel Gompers
US labor leader and first president of the American Federation of Labor
t: William Kelly
.
t: Emma Lazarus
American writer best known for her sonnet "The New Colossus" is emblazoned at the bade of the Statue of Libertty
t: R. H Marcy
.
t: J.P. Morgan
.
t: Samuel Morse
perfected the telegraph as well as decised a code of short and long electrical impulses to use with the telegraph and it rep letters of the alaphabet
t: Terrence Powderly
American labor leader who organized the and led the Knights of Labor from 1879-1893
t: George Pullman
.
t: John D. Rockefeller
Founder of the standard oil company which dominated the oil industry and was the first great us buisness trust
t: Alvah C. Roebuck
.
t: Richard Sears
.
t: Gustavus Swift
Founder of the meat packing industry and innovator of the refrigerated freight rail car for shipping meat over long times
t: Cornelius Vanderbilt
railroads was his main thing. philanthropist again
George Westinghouse
responsible for the manufacture of the rail car air brake system, also worked with electricity and developed the alternating current
Bessemer process
the process by which cold air id forced through molten iron to remove its impurities
cartel
loose arrangement of similar businesses formed to control production and keep prices high
collective bargaining
when workers negotiate as a group with employers for certain benefits
dividend
.
division of labor
breaking a job down into separate tasks and having each worker perform a different task
economies of sale
the idea that as production increases, cost per item decreases
horizontal consolidation
when you own part of the business, but that whole part.
laissez-faire
.
mass consumption
.
mass production
the making of goods in large quantities
mass transit
.
monopoly
the result of unifying companies in the same field or industry so you can make a larger more powerful that has no competition in selling the product
patent
license to make, use, or sell an invention
piecework
when workers received a fixed amount for each finished product that they produced
productivity
the amount of goods or services produced in a given amount of time
refinery
place where crude oil is processed into useful products like kerosene, oil, grease, and gsaoline
scabs
workers called in place of the striking workers
socialism
the political and economic theory that advocates public rather than private control over the property
social Darwinism
theory of :survival of the fittest" as it apples to business that was widely accepted throughout the 1800's
strike
when workers collectively refuse to work as a way of drawing attention to their cause
subsidy
is a payment made by the government to encourage the development of certian key industries, like railroads
sweatshop
the critical description of a place where workers worked long hours at ow wages under dangerous conditions
tenements
places in the cities where people lived and it was dirty crowded and disease infested
vertical consolidation
bringing together the various stages of production, from acquiring the raw materials to the sale of the finished product
aliens
illegal people who came into the us
Angel Island
the main reception center for the immigrants arriving in san fran
chinese exclusion act
law passed in 1882 that prohibited chinese people from entering the country, but did not prevent entry who had previously established s residence
ellis island
where the people got checked and came into america in NY
ghettos
section of the cities where certain ethnic groups and racial groups lived
graft
the use of ones job to gain profit, usually through accepting bribes
nativism
.
pogroms
violent massacre of jews carried out through Russia in 1880's
political machines
unofficial business organization to keep a particular party or group in power, usually headed by a "boss"
quarantine
situation that immigrants were in if they entered into the is and people thought they had a contagious disease
restrictive covenants
.
settlement houses
neighborhood community centers set up to help the poor and needy
social gospel movement
reform campaign that tried to apply the teachings of Jesus Christ directly to society
sociology
.
steerage
large open area beneath the ship's deck in which most of the immigrants traveled through it allowed no privacy and provided poor facilities
subsidies
.
restrictive covenants
agreements sometimes made by homeowners promising that they would not sell real estate to certain ethnic groups
suburb
residential community on the out-laying areas of the city
temperance movement
an organized movement to eliminate alcohol consumption
tenement houses
cheap apartment buildings crammed with people
vice
immoral of corrupt behavior