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what are the 4 phases of a bacterial growth curve?
lag, log (exponential), stationary (plateau), and death (decline)
as toxic waste builds up or food is depleted, bacterial cultures go into the ___ phase where there is no change in the size of the population (# dying= # reproducing)
bacterial cells die, reducing the total number of bacterial cells in the culture in what phase?
bacteria exists in what 3 shapes?
round (coccus), rod (bacillus), and spiral (spirilla, spirochete, vibrio)
withstands extremes of temps, drying, freezing, radiation, and chemicals that would kill vegetative bacterial cells
___ can begin if a bacterial cell is depleted of nutrients or put into a harsh environment: it can remain in this dormant inactive state forever
the breaking of ___ or germination of a spore happens in the presence of water and a favorable environmental stimulus
the breaking of dormancy or germination of a spore happens in the presence of a favorable environmental stimulus and what?
can be transferred from one bacteria to another through conjugation, transformation, and transduction
the exchange of genes between 2 dna molecules resulting in a new combination of genes in a chromosome
in ____ dna is transferred from one cell to another by means of bacterial viruses called bacteriophages
in transduction dna is transferred from one cell to another by means of bacterial viruses called
uses recombinant DNA technology which moves the gene of interest from one genome to another utilizing in vitro recombination of dna molecules
often used as the cloning vectors to close and transfer genes from one cell to another
plasmids and bacteriophages
care is taken to "disable" these genetic modified organisms by engineering metabolic defects into them
the last step in a bacteriophage infection of a bacteria
release of newly synthesized bacteriophages
the transducing particle is a ___ that occurs when a piece of bacterial DNA is taken up by the newly forming bacteriophage. it can then be used to transfer bacterial dna from one cell to another through the bacteriophage.
the ___ particle is a "mistake" that occurs when a piece of bacterial DNA is taken up by the newly forming bacteriophage. it can then be used to transfer bacterial dna from one cell to another through the bacteriophage.
simple components of a prokaryotic cell always include
cytoplasm, cell membrane, ribosomes, cell wall, and chromosomes
what characteristic of a bacterial cell wall helps the bacteria maintain its shape?
peptidoglycan cross linking
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