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Cyrus Field

-formed company tostretch like on bottom of oceans between u.s and europe
-weeks later broke and civil war haulted

Eli whitney

-invented machine to make precise copies of pieces(mass production)
-instead of1person to make 1gun,1worker make 1part
-uniformity sytem
-specialized machines instead ofwork(averagimmigrant)
-interchangeable parts (cheaper)

samuel slater

-ignored british law against taking factory designs outacon
-memorized most prized factory plan and brought to us
-thread mill(not advanced)
-employed failies

Dewitt clinton

-NY gov
-defefated maddison for pres
-to aid commerce wanted to build longest canal


neccessary evil


-"Postive Good"/stable and safe basis for free inst. in world"
- balcks wouldnt be accepted so this is good solution

Samuel Morse

-decided to make electronic telograph (messages)
-congress approved 30k , morse stretched balt-wash
-"what hath god wrought"

robert fulton

-brought first steam engine
-in clermont

john jervis

-made seperate truck(bogie) w. four wheels
-front of locomotive
-wheel low and swivel so sharp turn(no derail)

turn pike

-rd were user had to pay toll
-mosty built by private co.
-between lancaster and phili

why local/fed finance roads

-high toll allowed debt to pay off quickly
-rd betwen n&w kept s economical isolated-slav
-help economy trans food to markets(fastcheap)

importance to erie canal

-sucess repaid debt nad profit
-buffalot to NY only 1 cent per mile
-product in w.ny and ohio double
-sparked canal building boom but haulted by dep
-states amend. const. to forbide use of state credit fofr int improv. b/c some bankrupt by build

importance of steamboat travel

-power by wind labor (new to us)
-travel upstream in comfort
-high speed and light and shallow water

Dangers of steam boat

-burned wood to creat steam-boilers explode
-unlimited speed -no safety ft.
-explotion,flying recakage, boiling steam

brag boats

when steam boats were next to each other captains were encouraged to race
-collitions cause most explotions

how u.s. railroads differ from european

u.s. free from artificial barriers like un EU
-b/c eager to capture commerce built dangerou
-instead of 2, 1 track(collision)
-US didnt cut down hills,cut tunnels,

communication dev, in 1840's

-growing us want cheap/efficient postal serv
-want to abolish ps bc private co be more eficient
-recicpeint paid carrier, but if recipient noonehome no mail
-1st each post master printed own stamps (fail

"rural free delivery"

mail brought to individuals mail box for free
gov. deliver mail
-usps 5cent franklin 10c washigton

Link between IT and TR

-tr that brought steam power and new techniques=facto
- steam boats/RR carry to farm/factories
-tr reached thousands new cust. who buy mass goods

limited liability

-share holders couldnt be resposible for company debt
-hundreds share pofit but not risk
-only risk what invest

IR led to national economy

-farmers by factory made clothes,furniture
-N/W produce finish good in factory
-W grew wheat
-S specialize in tobacco,rice,sugar
-S&W products flowed NE once done moved to W&S

How National economy occured

america virigin forest,fertile fields, untapped materials

How limited liability fost growth of corp

-hundreds of small inv. put in $ shar profits but not risk
-more invest = more corp
-funds gather to built industrial nation
-rich&poor share profits

Waltham/Lowell Labor system

-IR freed woman from farming, no birdens,send$tofamil
-work>move to marry>kids>daughter to mill
-waltham didnt want a permanent working class
-people no stuck in dirty slums like EUrope

Contributions Lowell made to dev. factory system

in B-town francis cabot lowell in waltham brought together all process of making cotton then textiles
-w. success boston associates decided to expland
-built bigger ad better factory named town lowell
-NE used steam power instead of fuel(no dark sky)

Wage slavery

-s. defended slavery by saying n employed a factory working class (employ families)
-atleast S looked after slaves

intercahngeable parts

-machine made part exctly alike
-if whole gun broke , just exchange part instead of new

Uniformity system

whitney system bc ll guns uniform(same size/shape) w. same parts of any other gun w. same design

European factors led 5 mil immigrants to enter US

-E. crowded, w. dictators, floods,famines
-poor irish depended on potatoes (1/3 destoryed)starve

US factors

-clean air, cheap land,
-rumors of rich land, undiscovered minds,fast cities,
-people and doors open to future

Where irish settle?

Boston, NY, eastern seaboard

Part in TR

-strength,courage, work ethic in erie canal, canal, RR,
-destroy mills towns we try to keep clean b/c expenden

Germany problems lead to immigration

-Rhine R flooded, floating way crops and barns
-autumn storms uprooted trees, winter ppl froze to death, misery/starvation/go unhelful
-end ofnapoleonic was,states organize in2 conf. Austria
-ppl wanted democrcy,free of austria, peasants nopatax
-metternich organize tyranny = civil war and rev

German immigrants contributions

-middle clamoved2US b/c poor no money&rich no prob
-goal to creat democratic german
-political refugee Carl schurz ppl brought kindergarden,PE,beer(learn by playing),teachers,doc.

Where germans settle and why

Wisconsin, milwauke to be germans NW

Diffrence between E & US mills

- US not locked into poverty
-US have rights
-socialmobility bc no working class

Features of city buildings in West

-news, inns for travelors, theaters/operas for entertainment, colleges,
-W wanted to build first&B4 ppl can2draw ppl1 direction

Balloon fram house promote growth of W cities

-w no have crude tools to build strong timber frames
- w built light frame could blow away
-long pieces of timber w. heavy nails (IR made by thus)
-less assembly time, durable, disemble quickly
-lean against to support

Why s change from "necc evil"to "poss. good"

-N started to see horrorof slavery, they started to despise it,=started to hate S= hate southerners
-N objection grew and grew
-S, instead of worrying how to gret rid of slavery,started to worry about how to protect themselves
-"national benefit" quieted S outspeakers
-Calhunmost stable and safe basis for free inst.inworld
-solution b/c could/didnt know how to deal w/ diff race
-not tyrranical like N/S in mills, Slaveinvestment,takecar

Middle passage

Voyage to America
chained in mass #s under decks, disease,hot,frightene

Treatment diff from owner to owner of slavery

-Cruel owner worked from dusk to dawn,whipped and killed,
-Nice owner AKA "peculiar sit" kind,generous,never whipped,artisians, sesrvants,
-wives took care of sick, clothed,food,wedding,funeral,

Slave resistors

-run away/assist
-work slow,break tools,questions, reinforce lazy black

Effects of slavery in S

-non- slave owner positive to lavery b/c no other way to control diff group
-farmers/crafts man ay cut b/c slave do for free
-money could go into commerce went into slavery
-until slavery US work towards more perfect union

North "slavery" or S slavery

N= frie if injure,old,lazy, deaf and unhealthy
S=cared for if sick,prego,hurt,old, ch. jobs,outdoors
S= investment, take care of slave

Erie benefit wheat farmers
marchant in buffalo
immigrant family towards michigan
albany hotel owner

products doubled in value b/c demand
Buffalo to NY cost 1 cent per mile
easy transport,less expensize
moer bussiness b/c traveleors

fed,state,local assists roads
WHy ppl need help of gov

better quality for transport goods,more trade
decrease in Cent per mile b/c more demand
high toll allowed debt repaid+profit
individuals no enough $

Gov. strengthen /weaken enterprise system

-economically unit N and W, while S farmers
-helped economy

Irish and German immigrants Dates and #'s

1830-60, irrish 1mill and germny 900k

N argument for keeping slaver

-morall wrong, $ could go to diff aspectss

AJ presidency

-sparkede rise of the common man-selfmade,fought for state rights against fed. kill national bank bc fav,rich
-states rewrite const to allow all white male(increase distriction between race)

Temporness movement

woman became spokes ppl for against alchohol bc cause violence,crime ,domestic

Individual matters

woman saw poor,sick,needy,mentally ill and response of beaten,killed,isolated
-reforms to orphanage
-education,excersize, reforms in jail w. strict punish bc changes ppl

George Fitzhugh

spokes man for slavery is good,
"wage slavery"

Oliver Evans

responisble for engine of trains


promoting wage slavery
-idealic utopia to large dormity,massive building,irish immigrants
-to be effiient make$-stock holders want to see$
-avaliabity of irish
-demand for producting>increase buss>+fact>=worker


-replicated mahcines thet hims and lowell saw in manchester

Wage Slavery

-N mill workers slave to wage b/c have to work or starve
-locked into poverty

FIrst Mill

-RI, waltham, to E chelmsford turns inot Lowell

Interstate commerce

-interconnect commerce bc rd in NW and some Cannals trvaeling to S

Working Class

-not working class of mill girl but when depression hit
-maximize out put &minimize cost b/c less demand=mill

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