60 terms

ch 10 history

Cyrus Field
-formed company tostretch like on bottom of oceans between u.s and europe
-weeks later broke and civil war haulted
Eli whitney
-invented machine to make precise copies of pieces(mass production)
-instead of1person to make 1gun,1worker make 1part
-uniformity sytem
-specialized machines instead ofwork(averagimmigrant)
-interchangeable parts (cheaper)
samuel slater
-ignored british law against taking factory designs outacon
-memorized most prized factory plan and brought to us
-thread mill(not advanced)
-employed failies
Dewitt clinton
-NY gov
-defefated maddison for pres
-to aid commerce wanted to build longest canal
neccessary evil
-"Postive Good"/stable and safe basis for free inst. in world"
- balcks wouldnt be accepted so this is good solution
Samuel Morse
-decided to make electronic telograph (messages)
-congress approved 30k , morse stretched balt-wash
-"what hath god wrought"
robert fulton
-brought first steam engine
-in clermont
john jervis
-made seperate truck(bogie) w. four wheels
-front of locomotive
-wheel low and swivel so sharp turn(no derail)
turn pike
-rd were user had to pay toll
-mosty built by private co.
-between lancaster and phili
why local/fed finance roads
-high toll allowed debt to pay off quickly
-rd betwen n&w kept s economical isolated-slav
-help economy trans food to markets(fastcheap)
importance to erie canal
-sucess repaid debt nad profit
-buffalot to NY only 1 cent per mile
-product in w.ny and ohio double
-sparked canal building boom but haulted by dep
-states amend. const. to forbide use of state credit fofr int improv. b/c some bankrupt by build
importance of steamboat travel
-power by wind labor (new to us)
-travel upstream in comfort
-high speed and light and shallow water
Dangers of steam boat
-burned wood to creat steam-boilers explode
-unlimited speed -no safety ft.
-explotion,flying recakage, boiling steam
brag boats
when steam boats were next to each other captains were encouraged to race
-collitions cause most explotions
how u.s. railroads differ from european
u.s. free from artificial barriers like un EU
-b/c eager to capture commerce built dangerou
-instead of 2, 1 track(collision)
-US didnt cut down hills,cut tunnels,
communication dev, in 1840's
-growing us want cheap/efficient postal serv
-want to abolish ps bc private co be more eficient
-recicpeint paid carrier, but if recipient noonehome no mail
-1st each post master printed own stamps (fail
"rural free delivery"
mail brought to individuals mail box for free
gov. deliver mail
-usps 5cent franklin 10c washigton
Link between IT and TR
-tr that brought steam power and new techniques=facto
- steam boats/RR carry to farm/factories
-tr reached thousands new cust. who buy mass goods
limited liability
-share holders couldnt be resposible for company debt
-hundreds share pofit but not risk
-only risk what invest
IR led to national economy
-farmers by factory made clothes,furniture
-N/W produce finish good in factory
-W grew wheat
-S specialize in tobacco,rice,sugar
-S&W products flowed NE once done moved to W&S
How National economy occured
america virigin forest,fertile fields, untapped materials
How limited liability fost growth of corp
-hundreds of small inv. put in $ shar profits but not risk
-more invest = more corp
-funds gather to built industrial nation
-rich&poor share profits
Waltham/Lowell Labor system
-IR freed woman from farming, no birdens,send$tofamil
-work>move to marry>kids>daughter to mill
-waltham didnt want a permanent working class
-people no stuck in dirty slums like EUrope
Contributions Lowell made to dev. factory system
in B-town francis cabot lowell in waltham brought together all process of making cotton then textiles
-w. success boston associates decided to expland
-built bigger ad better factory named town lowell
-NE used steam power instead of fuel(no dark sky)
Wage slavery
-s. defended slavery by saying n employed a factory working class (employ families)
-atleast S looked after slaves
intercahngeable parts
-machine made part exctly alike
-if whole gun broke , just exchange part instead of new
Uniformity system
whitney system bc ll guns uniform(same size/shape) w. same parts of any other gun w. same design
European factors led 5 mil immigrants to enter US
-E. crowded, w. dictators, floods,famines
-poor irish depended on potatoes (1/3 destoryed)starve
US factors
-clean air, cheap land,
-rumors of rich land, undiscovered minds,fast cities,
-people and doors open to future
Where irish settle?
Boston, NY, eastern seaboard
Part in TR
-strength,courage, work ethic in erie canal, canal, RR,
-destroy mills towns we try to keep clean b/c expenden
Germany problems lead to immigration
-Rhine R flooded, floating way crops and barns
-autumn storms uprooted trees, winter ppl froze to death, misery/starvation/go unhelful
-end ofnapoleonic was,states organize in2 conf. Austria
-ppl wanted democrcy,free of austria, peasants nopatax
-metternich organize tyranny = civil war and rev
German immigrants contributions
-middle clamoved2US b/c poor no money&rich no prob
-goal to creat democratic german
-political refugee Carl schurz ppl brought kindergarden,PE,beer(learn by playing),teachers,doc.
Where germans settle and why
Wisconsin, milwauke to be germans NW
Diffrence between E & US mills
- US not locked into poverty
-US have rights
-socialmobility bc no working class
Features of city buildings in West
-news, inns for travelors, theaters/operas for entertainment, colleges,
-W wanted to build first&B4 ppl can2draw ppl1 direction
Balloon fram house promote growth of W cities
-w no have crude tools to build strong timber frames
- w built light frame could blow away
-long pieces of timber w. heavy nails (IR made by thus)
-less assembly time, durable, disemble quickly
-lean against to support
Why s change from "necc evil"to "poss. good"
-N started to see horrorof slavery, they started to despise it,=started to hate S= hate southerners
-N objection grew and grew
-S, instead of worrying how to gret rid of slavery,started to worry about how to protect themselves
-"national benefit" quieted S outspeakers
-Calhunmost stable and safe basis for free inst.inworld
-solution b/c could/didnt know how to deal w/ diff race
-not tyrranical like N/S in mills, Slaveinvestment,takecar
Middle passage
Voyage to America
chained in mass #s under decks, disease,hot,frightene
Treatment diff from owner to owner of slavery
-Cruel owner worked from dusk to dawn,whipped and killed,
-Nice owner AKA "peculiar sit" kind,generous,never whipped,artisians, sesrvants,
-wives took care of sick, clothed,food,wedding,funeral,
Slave resistors
-run away/assist
-work slow,break tools,questions, reinforce lazy black
Effects of slavery in S
-non- slave owner positive to lavery b/c no other way to control diff group
-farmers/crafts man ay cut b/c slave do for free
-money could go into commerce went into slavery
-until slavery US work towards more perfect union
North "slavery" or S slavery
N= frie if injure,old,lazy, deaf and unhealthy
S=cared for if sick,prego,hurt,old, ch. jobs,outdoors
S= investment, take care of slave
Erie benefit wheat farmers
marchant in buffalo
immigrant family towards michigan
albany hotel owner
products doubled in value b/c demand
Buffalo to NY cost 1 cent per mile
easy transport,less expensize
moer bussiness b/c traveleors
fed,state,local assists roads
WHy ppl need help of gov
better quality for transport goods,more trade
decrease in Cent per mile b/c more demand
high toll allowed debt repaid+profit
individuals no enough $
Gov. strengthen /weaken enterprise system
-economically unit N and W, while S farmers
-helped economy
Irish and German immigrants Dates and #'s
1830-60, irrish 1mill and germny 900k
N argument for keeping slaver
-morall wrong, $ could go to diff aspectss
AJ presidency
-sparkede rise of the common man-selfmade,fought for state rights against fed. kill national bank bc fav,rich
-states rewrite const to allow all white male(increase distriction between race)
Temporness movement
woman became spokes ppl for against alchohol bc cause violence,crime ,domestic
Individual matters
woman saw poor,sick,needy,mentally ill and response of beaten,killed,isolated
-reforms to orphanage
-education,excersize, reforms in jail w. strict punish bc changes ppl
George Fitzhugh
spokes man for slavery is good,
"wage slavery"
Oliver Evans
responisble for engine of trains
promoting wage slavery
-idealic utopia to large dormity,massive building,irish immigrants
-to be effiient make$-stock holders want to see$
-avaliabity of irish
-demand for producting>increase buss>+fact>=worker
-replicated mahcines thet hims and lowell saw in manchester
Wage Slavery
-N mill workers slave to wage b/c have to work or starve
-locked into poverty
FIrst Mill
-RI, waltham, to E chelmsford turns inot Lowell
Interstate commerce
-interconnect commerce bc rd in NW and some Cannals trvaeling to S
Working Class
-not working class of mill girl but when depression hit
-maximize out put &minimize cost b/c less demand=mill