The process of acting on information. A person says or does something, causing others to say or do something in response.
The process of making sense out of the world and sharing that sense with others by creating meaning through the use of verbal and nonverbal messages.
Including verbal and nonverbal cues in our messages to help others understand what we mean.
When receivers of our messages respond, we know they have decoded the message and an exchange of meaning has occurred.
The words we choose to use, and sometimes the non-words ("um," "uh-huh") or other vocalizations that aren't really words.
All those ways we communicate without words. Communication other than written or spoken language that creates meaning for someone.
Be aware of your communication with yourself and others. -improve our ability to "catch a clue," meaning that we need to hone our awareness of others' verbal and nonverbal communication.
Principle 2 for a Lifetime
Effectively use and interpret verbal messages.
Effectively use and interpret nonverbal messages.
Listen and respond thoughtfully to others.
Appropriately adapt messages to others.
Nonverbal Communication 2
A primary tool for conveying our feelings and attitudes and for detecting the emotional states of others.
Most significant source is the face (can channel as much as 55% of the meaning of a message). Vocal cues (pitch, volume, intensity) is 38%. Approx. 98% of how we feel in communicated nonverbally.
Intentional and Unintentional
Believe the Nonverbal when...
Verbal and nonverbal contradict (believe the nonverbal).
How we use nonverbal clues...
To signal change in the level of satisfaction with a relationship.
Nonverbal cues can substitute for verbal messages. Ex: someone can't hear that you want to order 2 sodas, so you put up 2 fingers to signify your order.
Nonverbal actions can complement our communication or clarify or extend the meaning of our words. Ex: saying your order along with putting up 2 fingers to signify your order of 2 sodas.
Complementary cues also...
help color our expressed emotions and attitudes. Ex: heavy sigh = bored or tired
Nonverbal cues can contradict verbal cues. Ex: Person with frowny face and crossed arms is not actually mad.
Nonverbal behaviors may also serve as a repeating function. Ex: Ordering 2 sodas, you shout your order first, then put up 2 fingers to clarify.
Nonverbal communication can regulate conversation. Ex: forward body leaning, making/breaking eye contact, raised eyebrows, "uh-huhs," etc.
Nonverbal behaviors often accent or provide emphasis for a verbal message. Ex: Good public speakers can do this very well.
Verbal communication is discontinuous. Talking occurs in a stop-start fashion.
Nonverbal communication is continuous. It precedes and accompanies verbal communication and continues long after conversations are over.
Verbal communication employs the use of language (grammar, rules, syntax).
Learned & Innate
Nonverbal is learned and innate, while verbal is learned.
Verbal comm. is processed in the left hemisphere of the brain.
Nonverbal comm. is processed in the right hemisphere of the brain.
Expectations or assumptions about appropriate nonverbal behavior are always operating, which most people learn through their culture. *many of these rules we're unaware of until they are violated.
Expectancy Violations Model
Developed by Judee Burgoon - model for how nonverbal comm. functions. We develop expectations for appropriate nonverbal behavior in ourselves and others, based on backgrounds, personal experiences, & knowledge of who we interact with. When expectations are violated, we become more interested in what's happening - nature of relationship with other person becomes critical factor as we try to interpret & respond to the situation.
Indirect Perception Checking
Run our interpretation by another observer, to get a second opinion or more input before we draw a conclusion.
Direct Perception Checking
Use a more straightforward approach, in which we ask the people we're observing how they feel or what's going on.
Reflexive Cycle of Nonverbal Comm. Development
1. Inventory self 2. Change self 3. Inventory others 4. Transact with others 5. Reflect, Assess, and Re-inventory Self
A nonverbal response that is accomplished automatically rather than purposefully. Automatic response to stimuli. Ex: Thinking about biting into a lemon (cringe).
Inventory our own nonverbal behavior. To become more aware of how we communicate without or in conjunction with words. We need to know what we're doing to assess it and possibly change it.
Change our nonverbal behavior based on our self inventory. It will take time to "un-learn" or alter routine or commonly used behaviors.
Pay close attention to a wider range of cues at a more microscopic level than you're used to doing. You can also ask people about their own nonverbal behavior or the behavior of others (perception checking).
Transact with Others
We interact with others and mutually affect one another's nonverbal behavior. We call this transaction.
Reflect, Asses, and Re-inventory Self
The cycle is ongoing, we never stop evolving in out understanding and use of nonverbal communication.
We're unaware of our own incompetence. We don't know what we don't know.
At this level, we become aware or conscious that we're not competent. We know what we don't know.
We're aware that we know or can do something, but it hasn't yet become an integrated skill or habit.
At this level, skills become second nature. We know something or can do something, but don't have to concentrate to be able to act upon that knowledge or draw upon that skill.
Primary categories of nonverbal information researchers have studied. Environment, space and territory, physical appearance, body movement, gestures and posture, facial expression, eye expression, touch, and vocal expression.
How people (an animals) create and use space and distance, as well as how they behave to protect and defend that space. Physical space and psychological space.
Space, distance, territory, crowding, and privacy.
Factors that control space
Culture, gender, age, status, physical characteristics, nature of the relationship, subject matter, setting.
fixed-featured, semi-fixed-featured, and your body bubble (how much space you get).
4 TYPES: 0-18 inches: people we're comfortable with (intimate) 1 1/2-4 feet: people you know, but not as comfortable with (personal) 4-12 feet: professional relationship (social consultative) 12+ feet: don't know them at all (public space)
Disrupt communication. Can have a positive effect in some situations (learning).
An area controlled by an individual, group, or family. Physical possession. Actual or potential. Defended/protected.
Types of Territory
Primary - has a clear owner (home). Secondary - sense of ownership (seat in class). Public - open to anyone (library, beach, etc). Interactional - when interacting with someone. Body.
Defining territory. Things and actions that signify an area has been claimed.
Jewelry, tattoos, piercings, makeup, cologne, eyeglasses, etc. (display culture).
Immediacy Cues that show liking and interest
Proximity, body orientation, eye contact, facial expression, gestures, posture, touch, vocal. (Mehrabian says immediacy is the reason we like people and dislike others).
Metaphorical Approach (Mehrabian)
dominance/power (communicate status, position and importance) immediacy/pleasure/attraction (see immediacy cues) arousal/activity (stimulation or activation).
Where we communicate and how we interact within a given space, as well as how much space is available.
The impact of space on our attitude, mood, and emotionality.
Most general. Use of or intrusion into primary territory (spaces or objects seen as personal belongings) without our permission.
Intense and typically permanent encroachment driven by an intent to take over a territory. Original owner is often forced out.
Type of encroachment in which someone's territory is tarnished with noise or impurity. Leaving a presence (someone's cigarette butts, returning a shirt reeking with an odor).
A physical reaction to a perception of spatial restrictions.
Desired Privacy - the amount of contact we desire from others. Achieved Privacy - Actual degree of contact that results from interaction with others.
occurs when a person is completely alone and isolated form other people and cannot be seen.
Two or more people who are able to reduce distractions from outsiders in order to enhance personal contact in their relationship.
occurs when people are able to hide their identity from others and avoid observation even though they're in a public space.
A person's ability to signal that he or she doesn't want to disclose information that is potentially embarrassing.
The degree to which someone is physically inaccessible to others.
occurs when an individual or group opts to withdraw from social interaction.
People's ability to exercise control over the expression of their thoughts and feelings.
People's ability to prevent the collection and distribution of information about themselves or their social networks without their knowledge or permission.
Communicate feelings and attitudes, are critical to relationships, are often misinterpreted, often interpreted as more meaningful than verbal messages.
Power and assertiveness - "power tie," voice, etc.
Self-Monitoring (social monitoring)
Attending to messages and adapting behaviors (situation, others).
People who are "high" self-monitors...
Conscious of image, close attention to others, aware of self, adapt at playing roles, personally flexible, inconsistent and unpredictable, "all the world's a stage."
People who are "low" self-monitors...
Display true dispositions, highly consistent, very predictable, limited behavioral options, "to thyne own self be true."
Social feedback and Social Comparison.
What others say to us, how important/believable is that feedback?, how was that feedback impacted by our nonverbal behavior? Information Value of Social Feedback: differentiated/undifferentiated, relationship (friend/stranger), valence (positive/negative), origin (solicited/unsolicited).
Comparing ourselves compared to others, depends on which "others" we choose. *self-fulfilling prophecy
The Perception Process
STIMULI: exposure, selection, interpretation (organizing), decision (what does it all mean). Selective Perceptions (STIMULI): unexpected, familiar, unfamiliar, biological factors, context, amount of stimuli, importance, interest.
Factors that impact impression formation...
Stereotypes (appearance, body size, vocal characteristics, space & env.), Primacy Effect (first impressions, halo effect, selective perceptions), Recency Effect (adjusting impressions based upon the most recent info.), and the Attribution Theory.
Attribution Theory (Kelly)
Consistency (does this person always do this?) Consensus (do others do this?) Distinctiveness (does this person do this everywhere he/she goes?) *Internal attribution: personal *External attribution: environmental
Example of Attribution Theory (Kelly)
Student gets a bad score on a test & complains: Consistency: YES (internal/personal) - NO (external/test) Consensus: YES (external/test) - NO (internal/personal) Distinctiveness: YES (internal/personal) - NO (external/test)
Attribution Theory (Jones & Davis)
Choices/advantages/impact. - are there other choices? - are there advantages to this choice? - could the same advantages come from other choices?
Example of Attribution Theory (Jones & Davis)
Student decides to skip class: Are there other choices? - go to class Advantages to this choice? - get more sleep Same advantages from other choices? - go to class, go to bed early (get more sleep).
Attribution Theory (Heider)
Was the behavior observed? Was it intentional? Was it coerced?
Example of Attribution Theory (Heider)
Someone breaks out into dance moves in the caf.: Observed? NO (dangerous) - YES... -> Intentional? NO (accident/reflex?) - YES... -> Coerced? NO (personal disposition) - YES (environmental disposition)
Expectancy Violation Theory
We all have expectations about behavior (situationally, rationally). Expectations come from RULES (upbringing, context, experience, culture, goals).
Elements of space combine to form perceptual frameworks that influence reactions and behavior.
Fixed-feature: structural elements of the space (size, shape, doors, windows, streets, sidewalks). Semi-fixed-feature: objects and furniture that can be moved/rearranged. Non-fixed-feature: our personal space.
Amount and type affects communication, perceptions of safety or danger.
Influence how we act, can be manipulated, impact how we feel (aromatherapy), some more appealing than others, individual preferences, sensitivities (allergies).
Personal preference, specific temp points (comfort/discomfort), setting specific, impacts perceptions.
Easier for some people to ignore than others, individual thresholds, individual preferences, white noise (can mask noise).
Perceptual Frameworks (Knapp)
Result from a combination of elements of space, impacts communication and behaviors, formality (how it's set up), privacy (how much space you have from others), familiarity (layout), constraint (how easy it is to get in and out of an environment).
We all have different definitions of time (in a little while, in a few hours, etc).
Cultural Aspects (of time)
Monochronic - one thing at a time, keeping track of time. Polychronic - see periods of time to do many things.
Time as Location
Organizing function (right time, on time).
Time as Duration
Expectation of how long something should last or should take.