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Speech Midterm

Terms in this set (61)

The three causes of communication apprehension are heredity, learned apprehension, and skills deficit. The first one heredity, may be because of certain personality traits that cause them to be apprehensive. They also may be more inclined to feel anxious about communicating, a trait that may have come from their parents or grandparents, which is trait-like communication apprehension and results in most people feeling anxious in most situations. Learned apprehension can be broken down into smaller subcategories, the first one being situation-based apprehension, which is temporary anxiety in response to a specific situation at a specific time. The second subcategory is audience-based apprehension, which comes when one is anxious about the members of the audience in which you will be communicating. The third category is context-based apprehension, which is anxiety about certain situations, such as one-on-one interviews, or speaking in a meeting. The final subcategory of learned apprehension is childhood reinforcement, where maybe someone who was admired had a fear of speaking, or the child had a negative experience with speaking in front of others and that has carried along with rest of their lives. The third cause of communication apprehension is skills deficit. This is when someone has not been trained to do public speaking and do not know how to do it effectively, which means that they lack the confidence to speak in public. Once properly trained, there should be no severe anxiety resulting from this cause.
The four goals for an introduction are: capture the audience's attention, establish the relevance of your topic to your audience, confirm your speaker credibility, and preview the body of the presentation. The first goal of capturing the audience's attention involves getting the audience to listen to you. To accomplish this, use an attention getter, a strong opening statement that uses some kind of creative device to capture your audience's attention and motivate them to listen. Some examples that you may use in your attention getter are asking rhetorical question, providing a question, start with a startling statement. Stimulate the audience's imagination, tell a story, use humor, or even refer to a recent event. The second goal, to establish the relevance of your speech to your audience, is key to making the audience tune into your speech. You need to establish the overall relevance of your topic, state why it is important and why it is worth your time and worth the time of your audience. Once you have established the overall relevance, you need to provide a specific relevance statement that states why the topic relates specifically to them that addresses their needs and interests. The third goal is to establish your credibility as a speaker. This is important because you must convince the audience that they should listen to you. You can do this by providing a credibility statement that explains your connection to the topic. Aside from a credibility statement the speaker may gain or lose credibility by their competence and character. If the audience sees that you are prepared, organized, and knowledgeable, they will perceive you as competent. If you are honest, trustworthy, and have your listeners best interests in mind, you will be seen to have good character. It is not only what you say but how you say it. The final goal is to give sneak peaks and preview of your presentation in your introduction. You need to give an overview of the content in the presentation. This includes the thesis, which is the framework for the body of the presentation. It reveals the purpose, direct topic, and main points of the presentation. You can then elaborate on the main points with a preview statement, which provides a little more detail about each of the main claims before you delve into them.