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Earth materials, for example rocks are being broken apart. Little or big cracks in the rock are evidence that this is taking place.


Earth materials, like rock, sand, and soil, are being carried away from their original location. Water and wind are often the causes for this.


Earth materials that have been eroded are put in a new location. When the wind stops blowing, sand and soil may be put down in piles as large as dunes. Water may deposit its material at the end of a river and form a delta.


Earth materials, like rock, sand, and soil, on the side of a slope or cliff drop down to a lower location. Water soaking into the ground often makes this happen.

Volcanic Eruptions

Earth material called lava comes out of the volcano flows down the side of the volcanic mountain (or is sent up into the air and lands nearby) where it hardens. The hardened volcanic rock forms new Earth material and often makes the volcanic mountain larger.


A lot of water causes rivers and streams to overflow their banks over the surrounding land around them. Heavy rainfall in the area is usually the cause of this.


When this is occurring, the surface of the ground shakes and rolls causing damage to the Earth's surface, like cracks and other openings, and damage to roads and buildings


large bodies of salt water that surrounds a continent.


large bodies of salt water that is often connected to an ocean. This may be partly or completely surrounded by land.


large, flowing bodies of fresh water that usually empty into a sea or ocean.


small, flowing bodies of fresh water that flow into rivers.

Lakes& ponds

areas where water, usually freshwater, are surrounded by land; differ in size with ponds usually being smaller than lakes.


huge sheets of ice that cover land. They are found where temperatures are very cold, for example, high in the mountains or near the poles of Earth.


An opening in Earth's surface from which lava flows. As the lava hardens and builds up, a volcanic mountain forms.


A place on Earth's surface where the land is much higher than the land that surrounds it. can be tall and rocky and others are rounded and covered with trees. the area that has a flat top is called a plateau.


A lowland area between higher areas such as mountains. Sometimes rivers can wear away land to form these


A deep valley with very steep sides. They are often carved from the Earth by a river.


A large cave or underground chamber, and are formed underground when water wears away the rock.

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