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Terms in this set (43)
1) The difference between speed and velocity is that
A) they are expressed in different units.
B) velocity also includes a direction.
C) velocity is the same as acceleration but speed is different.
D) velocity is calculated using a physics equation.
2) The acceleration of gravity on Earth is approximately 10 m/s2 (more precisely, 9.8 m/s2). If you drop a rock from a tall building, about how fast will it be falling after 3 seconds?
A) 30 m/s.
B) 10 m/s.
C) 30 m/s2
D) 10 m/s2
E) 20 m/s
3) Momentum is defined as
A) mass times velocity.
B) mass times speed.
C) force times velocity.
D) mass times acceleration.
4) Suppose you lived on the Moon. Which of the following would be true?
A) Your weight would be less than your weight on Earth, but your mass would be the same as it is on Earth.
B) Both your weight and your mass would be less than they are on Earth.
C) Your mass would be less than your mass on Earth, but your weight would be the same as it is on Earth.
D) Both your weight and your mass would be the same as they are on Earth.
5) In which of the following cases would you feel weightless?
A) while falling from a roof
B) while parachuting from an airplane
C) while accelerating downward in an elevator
D) while walking on the Moon
6) Which of the following statements is not one of Newton's Laws of Motion?
A) What goes up must come down.
B) The rate of change of momentum of an object is equal to the net force applied to the object.
C) In the absence of a net force acting upon it, an object moves with constant velocity.
D) For any force, there always is an equal and opposite reaction force.
7) Newton's Second Law of Motion tells us that the net force applied to an object equals its
A) mass times acceleration.
B) mass times energy.
C) momentum times velocity.
D) mass times velocity.
8) Suppose that two objects collide. Which of the following things is not the same both before and after the collision?
A) the total temperature of the objects
B) the total momentum of the objects
C) the total angular momentum of the objects
D) the total energy of the objects
9) When a spinning ice skater pulls in his arms, he spins faster because
A) his angular momentum must be conserved, so reducing his radius must increase his speed of rotation.
B) there is less friction with the air.
C) there is less friction with the ice.
D) there exists an unbalanced reaction force.
10) The energy attributed to an object by virtue of its motion is known as
A) potential energy.
B) kinetic energy.
C) radiative energy.
11) Radiative energy is
A) heat energy.
B) energy from nuclear power plants.
C) energy carried by light.
D) energy of motion.
12) Absolute zero is
A) 0 Kelvin.
B) 0° Celsius.
C) 0° Fahrenheit.
D) 100° Celsius.
13) What does temperature measure?
A) the average mass of particles in a substance
B) the total potential energy of particles in a substance
C) the total amount of heat in a substance
D) the average kinetic energy of particles in a substance
14) In the formula E=mc2, what does E represent?
A) the mass-energy, or potential energy stored in an object's mass
B) the kinetic energy of a moving object
C) the radiative energy carried by light
D) the gravitational potential energy of an object held above the ground
15) According to the universal law of gravitation, if you triple the distance between two objects, then the gravitational force between them
A) increases by a factor of 9.
B) decreases by a factor of 9.
C) decreases by a factor of 3.
D) increases by a factor of 3.
16) What is the difference between a bound orbit and an unbound orbit around the Sun?
A) A bound orbit is an orbit allowed by the universal law of gravitation, and an unbound orbit is not.
B) An object on a bound orbit has a gravitational attraction to the Sun, while an object on an unbound orbit does not.
C) A bound orbit is circular, while an unbound orbit is elliptical.
D) An object on a bound orbit follows the same path around the Sun over and over, while an object on an unbound orbit approaches the Sun just once and then never returns.
17) The allowed shapes for the orbits of objects responding only to the force of gravity are
A) ellipses, parabolas, and hyperbolas.
B) ellipses only.
C) ellipses, spirals, and parabolas.
D) circles and ellipses.
18) Why is Newton's version of Kepler's third law so useful to astronomers?
A) It allows us to calculate distances to distant objects.
B) It can be used to determine the masses of many distant objects.
C) It tells us that more-distant planets orbit the Sun more slowly.
D) It explains why objects spin faster when they shrink in size.
19) What do we mean by the orbital energy of an orbiting object (such as a planet, moon, or satellite)?
A) Orbital energy is the sum of the object's kinetic energy and its gravitational potential energy as it moves through its orbit.
B) Orbital energy is the object's kinetic energy as it moves through its orbit.
C) Orbital energy is a measure of the object's speed as it moves through its orbit.
D) Orbital energy is the amount of energy required for the object to leave orbit and escape into space.
20) Which statement must be true in order for a rocket to travel from Earth to another planet?
A) It must carry a lot of extra fuel.
B) It must have very large engines.
C) It must attain escape velocity from Earth.
D) It must be launched from space, rather than from the ground.
21) Approximately where is it currently high tide on Earth?
A) on the portion of Earth facing directly toward the Moon and on the portion of Earth facing directly away from the Moon
B) only on the portion of the Earth facing directly toward the Moon
C) wherever it is currently noon
D) anywhere that ocean water laps upon the shore
1) Which of the following represents a case in which you are not accelerating?
A) driving in a straight line at 60 miles per hour
B) going from 0 to 60 miles per hour in 10 seconds
C) slamming on the brakes to come to a stop at a stop sign
D) driving 60 miles per hour around a curve
2) Suppose you drop a 10-pound weight and a 5-pound weight on the Moon, both from the same height at the same time. What will happen?
A) Both will hit the ground at the same time.
B) The 10-pound weight will hit the ground before the 5-pound weight.
C) The 5-pound weight will hit the ground before the 10-pound weight.
D) Both weights will float freely, since everything is weightless on the Moon.
3) Why are astronauts weightless in the Space Station?
A) because the Space Station is traveling so fast
B) because the Space Station is constantly in free-fall around Earth
C) because there is no gravity in space
D) because the Space Station is moving at constant velocity
4) A net force acting on an object will always cause a change in the object's
5) Suppose you are in an elevator that is traveling upward at constant speed. How does your weight compare to your normal weight on the ground?
A) It is greater.
B) It is less.
C) It is the same.
D) You are weightless.
6) The planets never travel in a straight line as they orbit the Sun. According to Newton's second law of motion, this must mean that
A) the planets are always accelerating.
B) the planets have angular momentum.
C) the planets will eventually fall into the Sun.
D) a force is acting on the planets.
7) Suppose the Sun were suddenly to shrink in size but that its mass remained the same. According to the law of conservation of angular momentum, what would happen?
A) The Sun would rotate faster than it does now.
B) The Sun's rate of rotation would slow.
C) The Sun's angular size in our sky would stay the same.
D) This could never happen, because it is impossible for an object to shrink in size without an outside torque.
8) Suppose you kick a soccer ball straight up to a height of 10 meters. Which of the following is true about the gravitational potential energy of the ball during its flight?
A) The ball's gravitational potential energy is greatest at the instant it returns to hit the ground.
B) The ball's gravitational potential energy is greatest at the instant when the ball is at its highest point.
C) The ball's gravitational potential energy is always the same.
D) The ball's gravitational potential energy is greatest at the instant the ball leaves your foot.
9) Suppose you heat an oven to 400°F and boil a pot of water. Which of the following explains why you would be burned by sticking your hand briefly in the pot but not by sticking your hand briefly in the oven?
A) The water can transfer heat to your arm more quickly than the air.
B) The water has a higher temperature than the oven.
C) The molecules in the water are moving faster than the molecules in the oven.
D) The oven has a higher temperature than the water.
10) Which of the following scenarios involves energy that we would typically calculate with Einstein's formula E=mc2?
A) A small amount of the hydrogen in of a nuclear bomb becomes energy as fusion converts the hydrogen to helium.
B) An object accelerated to a great speed has a lot of kinetic energy.
C) A mass raised to a great height has a lot of gravitational potential energy.
D) A burning piece of wood produces light and heat, therefore giving off radiative and thermal energy.
11) A rock held above the ground has potential energy. As the rock falls, this potential energy is converted to kinetic energy. Finally, the rock hits the ground and stays there. What has happened to the energy?
A) The energy goes to producing sound and to heating the ground, rock, and surrounding air.
B) The energy goes into the ground, and as a result, the orbit of the Earth about the Sun is slightly changed.
C) The rock keeps the energy inside it in the form of mass-energy.
D) It is transformed back into gravitational potential energy.
12) Suppose that the Sun shrank in size but that its mass remained the same. What would happen to Earth's orbit?
A) The size of Earth's orbit would shrink, and it would take less than one year to orbit the Sun.
B) Earth's orbit would expand, and it would take more than one year to orbit the Sun.
C) Earth's orbit would be unaffected.
D) Earth would change from a bound orbit to an unbound orbit and fly off into interstellar space
13) Imagine another solar system, with a star of the same mass as the Sun. Suppose a planet with a mass twice that of Earth (2MEarth) orbits at a distance of 1 AU from the star. What is the orbital period of this planet?
A) 1 year
B) 6 months
C) 2 years
D) It cannot be determined from the information given.
14) Imagine another solar system, with a star more massive than the Sun. Suppose a planet with the same mass as Earth orbits at a distance of 1 AU from the star. How would the planet's year (orbital period) compare to Earth's year?
A) The planet's year would be longer than Earth's.
B) The planet's year would be shorter than Earth's.
C) The planet's year would be the same as Earth's.
D) An orbit at a distance of 1 AU would not be possible around a star more massive than the Sun.
15) Newton showed that Kepler's laws are
A) natural consequences of the law of universal gravitation.
B) seriously in error.
C) actually only three of seven distinct laws of planetary motion.
D) the key to proving that Earth orbits our Sun.
16) Each of the following lists two facts. Which pair of facts can be used with Newton's version of Kepler's third law to determine the mass of the Sun?
A) Earth is 150 million km from the Sun and orbits the Sun in one year.
B) Mercury is 0.387 AU from the Sun and Earth is 1 AU from the Sun.
C) The mass of Earth is 6 × 1024 kg and Earth orbits the Sun in one year.
D) Earth rotates in one day and orbits the Sun in one year.
17) When space probe Voyager 2 passed by Saturn, its speed increased (but not due to firing its engines). What must have happened?
A) Voyager 2 must have dipped through Saturn's atmosphere.
B) Saturn's rotation must have sped up slightly.
C) Saturn must have lost a very tiny bit of its orbital energy.
D) Saturn must have captured an asteroid at precisely the moment that Voyager 2 passed by.
18) Suppose that a lone asteroid happens to be passing Jupiter on an unbound orbit (well above Jupiter's atmosphere and far from all of Jupiter's moons.) Which of the following statements would be true?
A) The asteroid's orbit around Jupiter would not change, and it would go out on the same unbound orbit that it came in on.
B) Jupiter's gravity would capture the asteroid, making it a new moon of Jupiter.
C) Jupiter's gravity would suck in the asteroid, causing it to crash into Jupiter.
D) There is no way to predict what would happen.
19) Which of the following best describes the origin of ocean tides on Earth?
A) Tides are caused by the difference in the force of gravity exerted by the Moon across the sphere of Earth.
B) The Moon's gravity pulls harder on water than on land, because water is less dense than rock.
C) Tides are caused by the 23.5-degree tilt of the Earth's rotational axis to the ecliptic plane.
D) Tides are caused on the side of the Earth nearest the Moon because the Moon's gravity attracts the water.
20) At which lunar phase(s) are tides most pronounced (for example, the highest high tides)?
A) both first and third quarters
B) both new and full Moons
C) full Moon only
D) new Moon only
E) third quarter Moon only
21) Which of the following best explains why the Moon's orbital period and rotation period are the same?
A) The Moon once rotated faster, but tidal friction slowed the rotation period until it matched the orbital period.
B) The Moon was once closer to Earth, but the force of gravity got weaker as the Moon moved farther away.
C) The law of conservation of angular momentum ensured that the Moon must have the same amount of rotational angular momentum as it has of orbital angular momentum.
D) The equality of the Moon's orbital and rotation periods is an extraordinary astronomical coincidence.
22) Suppose the Moon's orbit were unchanged, but it rotated faster (meaning it did not have synchronous rotation). Which of the following would be true?
A) The Moon would go through its cycle of phases (from one new Moon to the next) in less time than it does now.
B) We would no longer always see nearly the same face of the Moon.
C) Tides would be stronger; that is, higher high tides and lower low tides.
D) High tides would occur more frequently than they do now.
E) All of the above are true.
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