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Wellness, Prevention and Health Maintenance
Terms in this set (57)
"_______is the complete state of physical, mental and social well- being and not just the absence of disease or infirmity."
1) Occupations; (2) Adaptations to Context; (3) Alterations of Context.
Occupational Therapy uses HEALTH PROMOTION in a client-centered approach to "health." We use:
(1) An individual's quality of life; (2) A family's quality of life; (3) A community's quality of life.
And we use these 3 things to maximize:
the PROCESS of maximizing health through structured interventions
the OUTCOME of HEALTH PROMOTION and is ultimately the responsibility of the individual, the family or the community.
(2) Individual behavior
(3) Social environment
(4) Physical environment
(5) Health services
"Health" is determined by many factors. In a U.S. government report called "Healthy People 2020", the things that determine "Health" were described in 5 broad categories:
(1) Help us identify a health need; (2) Provide us a roadmap about how to address that need.
Healthy People 2020 are promoting is a "society in which all people live long, healthy lives." They provide a FRAMEWORK that we can all use to:
(1) Attain high quality, longer lives free of preventable disease, disability, injury and premature death.
(2) Achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups.
(3) Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all people.
(4) Promote quality of life, health developments and healthy behaviors across all life stages.
The goals for "a healthy life" that they are proposing are:
(6) Social justice and equity
(7) Stable ecosystem
(8) Sustainable resources
WHO's 8 prerequisites for health
(1) Educate about energy conservation and work simplification and (2) Ergonomic principles in the work place.
Historically, as occupational therapists, we have been involved in HEALTH PROMOTION on a limited basis. We do things like:
(1) Difficulty receiving reimbursement
(2) Minimal education and exposure to "health promotion"
(3) A shortage of mentors
(4) A shortage of evidence
(5) Confusion about role delineation
there are only a few of us who are involved in community-based or population-based health promotion activities. And there are a variety of reasons for that:
(1) Improved well-being; (2) Quality of life; (3) Social participation.
A key purpose of "health promotion" is:
"PREVENTION" is generally categorized into 3 levels:
Is defined as education or health promotion efforts designed to prevent the onset and reduce the incidence of unhealthy conditions, diseases, or injuries.
(1) Identify; (2) Reduce or (3) Eliminate risk factors associated with disease and injury before the critical event occurs. It targets those that are not at any greater risk than the general population.
Primary prevention attempts to
(1) Improving nutrition;
(2) Increasing physical activity;
(3) Smoking cessation;
(4) Weight management;
(5) Screening for heart disease, diabetes and cancer;
(6) Seat belt laws;
(7) Laws: Helmets when using motorcycles/bicycles;
(8) Laws: No texting while driving;
(9) Well-baby checkups.
(10) Anger management and conflict resolution training for parents, teachers and school-age youth to reduce the incidence of bullying and other violence.
(11) Parenting skills training to improve family health and decrease the potential for abuse.
(Primary Prevention) Strategies for health promotion might include:
Includes: (1) Screening; (2) Early detection; (3) Intervention...after the disease has occurred. It is designed to prevent or disrupt the disabling process.
Refers to services designed to prevent the ________ of a condition or to keep a "mild disorder" from becoming "a severe one." (secondary prevention)
(1) Screening; (2) Consultation; (3) Community-Based care; (4) Home health care.
It addresses an "at risk" individual, group or population and might provide (secondary)
(a) Instructions in joint protection
(b) Instructions in proper body mechanics
(c) Energy conservation/Work simplification
(Secondary) For someone with a newly diagnosed condition:
Working in areas to decrease architectural barriers that restrict ____ and ____. (Secondary)
(secondary) Home ______ evaluations
(a) Fall prevention; (b) Health education; (c) Energy conservation
(secondary) Develop programs in assisted living facilities that focus on such things as:
(a) How to "protect your back (back schools); (b) Body mechanics training; (c) Education/Training on repetitive stress injuries, such as Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.
(secondary) Ergonomics (The science of workplace design): Help employees remain well and injury-free. Examples are:
excessively heavy, incorrectly
(secondary) Back-Pack awareness: A campaign to educate people on preventing pain and injury that can occur when backpacks are _____ _____ or they are carried _______. This has also been expanded to include education on how to carry a purse, a briefcase or a suitecase
4 to 14
(secondary) Programs addressing youth violence, such as FAST (Families and Schools Together).This is an activity-based program that OTs participate in. It targets children ages ______ who have been screened by their school and have been identified as "at-risk" for dropping out of school and becoming delinquent or potentially violent.
(secondary) Community-based programs such as COTS (Community Occupational Therapy Services) that is involved in _____, including mental illness, drug/alcohol abuse, domestic violence, decreased socialization, etc. This is a program that has been run for years by the University of Tennessee in Memphis. It partners faculty and graduate students to provide community services in that area.
Attempts to prevent a serious disorder from producing a permanent disability.
(1) Maximize FUNCTION; (2) Minimize DETRIMENTAL EFFECTS of a disabling condition; (3) Reduce barriers to desired occupational performance.
The goal of tertiary prevention is to
maximizing function, minimizing detrimental
OTs and OTAs are considered "experts" in TERTIARY PREVENTION because we are all about "_______ _______" and "_______ _______ effects."
transitional, independent-living skills
(tertiary prevention interventions) ______ or ___-____ _______ training for people who have mental illness and those with cognitive impairments.
leisure participation groups
(tertiary prevention interventions) _____ ______ _____for older adults with dementia to prevent depression, enhance socialization and improve quality of life.
Social participation activities
(tertiary prevention interventions) ______ ______ ______ at a drop-in center for adults with severe mental illness
Stroke support groups
(tertiary prevention interventions) _____ _____ _____ for survivors/caregivers.
(1) Larger groups; (2) Organizations; (3) Communities; (4) Populations
______; _______; ______; ______ can also benefit from OT interventions
work, leisure, and family
Benefits of OT intervention: Consultation to businesses to promote well-being of workers through identification of problems/solutions for balance among ____, ____ and ____ ____.
day care staff
Benefits of OT intervention: Education for ____ ____ ____ regarding normal growth/development, handling behavior problems and identifying children at risk for developmental delays.
accessibility, universal design
Benefits of OT intervention: Consulting with contractors, architects, and city planners regarding _____ and ______ ______.
Benefits of OT intervention: Implementing a community-wide screening program for ______ at nursing homes, assisted-living facilities and senior centers
Benefits of OT intervention: Training volunteers to function effectively in _____-_____ shelters during disasters
(1) Governmental agencies; (2) Foundations; (3) Nonprofit organizations; (4) Insurance companies; (5) Large corporations; (6) Fee-For-Service.
Funding for "health promotion" program can come from:
ACA Title IV calls for: Increasing funding for _____ and _____ health programs.
ACA Title IV calls for: Providing _____ and _____ related to health promotion and disease prevention.
ACA Title IV calls for: Reviewing evidence related to _____ services and the development of _____.
ACA Title IV calls for: Providing Medicare coverage of annual ___-___ visits and the development of personalized preventing plans.
ACA Title IV calls for: Improving access to preventive services for eligible adults in _____.
ACA Title IV calls for: Eliminating patient _____ for prevention services.
ACA Title IV calls for: Dispersing incentives for prevention of _____ _____ in Medicaid.
ACA Title IV calls for: Evaluating outcomes of _____-_____ prevention and wellness programs for Medicare beneficiaries.
ACA Title IV calls for: Removing barriers and improving access to health promotion services for individuals with ______.
ACA Title IV calls for: Providing _____ for employer-based wellness programs.
ACA Title IV calls for: Funding for _____ _____ project (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2011; Network for Public Health Law, 2011).
Working with a family: a retired couple is an example of _____ prevention.
Working with a business: A commercial baker is an example of ______ prevention.
Working with a school: An elementary school is an example of ______ prevention
Working with a government agency: transportation is an example of ______ prevention.
Working with a group: rehab unit is an example of ______ prevention.
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