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99 terms

Psych Exam 1

STUDY
PLAY
Pseudo
Means false psychology not based on scientific testing
phrenology
personality traits revealed by shape of skull and bumps on your head
palmistry
lines on your hands predict future and reveal personality
graphology
personality revealed by your handwriting
astrology
position of the stars and planets at birth determine your personality and affect your behavior
Barnum effect
tendency to consider personal descriptions accurate if stated in general terms
William Wundt
father of psychology
William James
wrote 1890 psych textbook
Mary Calkins
APA's first female president
Sigmund Freud
Austrian physician first study was with hysteria and nervous disorders thought all humans were bad unconscious mind
Watson and Skinner
Behaviorists thought psych should only evaluate behaviors(only things a person says, does, or feels)
Maslow and Rogers
emphasized effects of environment and need for love and acceptance; humanists believed people were good
psychology
scientific study of behavior and mental processes; way of asking and answering questions
Goals of Psychology
description of behaviors
understanding
prediction
control
description of behaviors
naming and classifying various observable measurable behaviors
understanding
the causes of behavior
prediction
forecasting behavior accurately
control
altering conditions that affect behavior
neuroscience
how the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences
evolutionary
how the natural selection of traits promoted the survival of genes
humanistic
self esteem, self worth
biblical
how does creation interact with creator; how does sin?
psychodynamic
how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts
behavioral
observable behaviors
behavior genetics
how genes influence behaviors
cognitive
how we encode, process, store and retrieve info; most commonly used
social-cultural
how behaviors and thinking very across situations and cultures
developmental
study changing abilities from womb to tomb
personality
investigate our persistent traits
clinical counseling
studies, assesses, treats people with psych disorders, helps cope with academic, voc, and marital challenges
educational
studies and helps individuals in school and educational settings
industrial/organizational
studies and advises on behavior in the work place
clinical psychologist
studies, assesses and treats troubled people with psychotherapy
psychiatrist
medical doctors who use treatments like drugs and psychotherapy to treat psychologically diseased patients
how do psychologists ask and answer questions
scientific method
description
correlation
experimentation
theory
an explanation that integrates principles and organizes and predicts behavior or events
hypothesis
a testable prediction often prompted by a theory, to enable us to accept, reject or revise the theory
research
requires us to administer tests of self-esteem and depression
descriptive methods survey
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes, opinions or behaviors of people usually done by questioning a representative, random sample of people
wording effects
wording can change the results of a survey
random sampling
if each member of a population has an equal chance of inclusion into a sample, it is called a random sample. If the survey sample is biased, its results are not valid
naturalistic observation
observing and recording the behavior of animals
case study
a technique in which 1 person is studied in depth to reveal underlying behavioral principles
correlation
when 1 trait or behavior accompanies another
Illusory correlation
the perception of a relationship where no relationship actually exists
cause and effect
experimentation is the backbone of psychological research, experiments use experimental control to isolate causes and effects
experimental control
allows researchers to study the influence of 1 or 2 independent variables on a dependent variables while holding other influences constant
independent variable
factor manipulated by the experimenter effect of independent variable is focus of study
dependent variable
a factor that may change in response to an IV in psych it is a behavior or mental process
double blind procedure
the patients and the experiementer's assistants remain unaware of who receives the drug or placebo
random assignment
randomly assigning between placebo and real drug minimizes pre-existing differences between the two
Neurons
billions of interconnected cells
dendrites
receive messages
axon terminal
sends messages
action potential
a brief electrical charge that travels down and axon and is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon's membrane
all or none responses
strong stimulus can trigger more neurons to fire, and to fire more often, but it does not affect the action potential speed or strength
synapse
junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite of cell body of the receiving neuron.
re-uptake
neurotransmitters in the synapse are re absorbed into the sending neuron
neurotransmitter
chemicals released sending neuron travel across synapse and bind to receptor on receiving neuron
serotonin
pathway is fast acting and involved in mood regulation
dopamine
pathway involved with schizophrenia and parkinson's disease
nervous system
consists of all nerve cells. Body's speedy, electro-chemical communication system
central nervous system
brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
sensory and motor neurons that connect the cns to the rest of the body
sensory neurons
carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the cns
motor neurons
carry outgoing information from the cns to muscles and glands. Interneurons connect the two neurons
brainstem
primary part of brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells and enters the skull. it is responsible for autonomic survival functions
medulla
base of the brainstem that controls heart beat and breathing
thalamus
is the brain's sensory switchboard located on top of the brainstem. It directs messages to the sensory areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
reticular formation
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal
frontal lobe
sense of self, motor control, and higher mental abilities such as reasoning and planning
parietal lobe
sensaion such as touch, temperature, and pressure
occipital lobe
vision
cerebellum
posture, coordination, muscle tone, and memory of skills and habits
temporal lobe
hearing and language
limbic system
hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, and parts of thalamus
amygdala
consists of two lima bean-sized neural clusters linked to emotions of fear and anger
cerebral cortex
intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemisphere. It is the body's ultimate control and processing center
endocrine system
slow chemical communication system. communication is carried out by hormones synthesized by a set of glands
hormones
chemicals synthesized by glands that are secreted in the blood stream. hormones affect the brain and other body tissues
EEG
an amplified recording of the electrical waves sweeping across the brain's surface, measured by electrodes placed on the scalp
PET Scan
a visual display of brain activity that detects a radioactive form of glucose while the brain performs a given task
divided brain
our brain has 2 hemispheres. The left processes reading, writing, speaking, mathematics and comprehension skills
Characteristics passed on from parents
belief, faith, politics, abilities, intelligence, and health
chromosomes
contain dna are are situated in the nucleus of a cell. each cell contains 46 chromosomes.
genes
segments within dna that consist of genes that produce proteins to determine out development
twins and adoption studies
uses sets of twins to study the effects of heredity and environment
temperament
refers to a person's stable emotional reactivity and intensity. identical twins express similar temperaments suggesting heredity predisposes temperament
newborn temperaments
easy children
difficult children
slow-to-warm up children
remaining children
authoritarian parents
enforce rigid rules and demand strict obedience to authority; children tend to be emotionally stiff and lacking in curiosity
overly permissive parents
give little guidance, allow too much freedom, or don't hold children accountable for their actions; children tend to be dependent and immature and frequently misbehave
african american families
emphasize loyalty, interdependence, perseverance, respect, and resourcefulness
hispanic families
stress family values, pride, loyalty, respect, and cooperation
asian-american families
stress group loyalty, interdependence, achievement, respect, and self-discipline
arab-american families
emphasize obedience, discipline, success, hospitality, hardwork, and achievement
zygote
a fertilized egg with 100 cells that become increasingly diverse
fetus
embryo turns into fetus at 9 weeks
teratogens
chemicals or viruses that can enter the placenta and harm the developing fetus
sensitive periods
a period of increased sensitivity to environmental influences. a time when certain events must occur for normal development to take place