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Means false psychology not based on scientific testing


personality traits revealed by shape of skull and bumps on your head


lines on your hands predict future and reveal personality


personality revealed by your handwriting


position of the stars and planets at birth determine your personality and affect your behavior

Barnum effect

tendency to consider personal descriptions accurate if stated in general terms

William Wundt

father of psychology

William James

wrote 1890 psych textbook

Mary Calkins

APA's first female president

Sigmund Freud

Austrian physician first study was with hysteria and nervous disorders thought all humans were bad unconscious mind

Watson and Skinner

Behaviorists thought psych should only evaluate behaviors(only things a person says, does, or feels)

Maslow and Rogers

emphasized effects of environment and need for love and acceptance; humanists believed people were good


scientific study of behavior and mental processes; way of asking and answering questions

Goals of Psychology

description of behaviors

description of behaviors

naming and classifying various observable measurable behaviors


the causes of behavior


forecasting behavior accurately


altering conditions that affect behavior


how the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences


how the natural selection of traits promoted the survival of genes


self esteem, self worth


how does creation interact with creator; how does sin?


how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts


observable behaviors

behavior genetics

how genes influence behaviors


how we encode, process, store and retrieve info; most commonly used


how behaviors and thinking very across situations and cultures


study changing abilities from womb to tomb


investigate our persistent traits

clinical counseling

studies, assesses, treats people with psych disorders, helps cope with academic, voc, and marital challenges


studies and helps individuals in school and educational settings


studies and advises on behavior in the work place

clinical psychologist

studies, assesses and treats troubled people with psychotherapy


medical doctors who use treatments like drugs and psychotherapy to treat psychologically diseased patients

how do psychologists ask and answer questions

scientific method


an explanation that integrates principles and organizes and predicts behavior or events


a testable prediction often prompted by a theory, to enable us to accept, reject or revise the theory


requires us to administer tests of self-esteem and depression

descriptive methods survey

a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes, opinions or behaviors of people usually done by questioning a representative, random sample of people

wording effects

wording can change the results of a survey

random sampling

if each member of a population has an equal chance of inclusion into a sample, it is called a random sample. If the survey sample is biased, its results are not valid

naturalistic observation

observing and recording the behavior of animals

case study

a technique in which 1 person is studied in depth to reveal underlying behavioral principles


when 1 trait or behavior accompanies another

Illusory correlation

the perception of a relationship where no relationship actually exists

cause and effect

experimentation is the backbone of psychological research, experiments use experimental control to isolate causes and effects

experimental control

allows researchers to study the influence of 1 or 2 independent variables on a dependent variables while holding other influences constant

independent variable

factor manipulated by the experimenter effect of independent variable is focus of study

dependent variable

a factor that may change in response to an IV in psych it is a behavior or mental process

double blind procedure

the patients and the experiementer's assistants remain unaware of who receives the drug or placebo

random assignment

randomly assigning between placebo and real drug minimizes pre-existing differences between the two


billions of interconnected cells


receive messages

axon terminal

sends messages

action potential

a brief electrical charge that travels down and axon and is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon's membrane

all or none responses

strong stimulus can trigger more neurons to fire, and to fire more often, but it does not affect the action potential speed or strength


junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite of cell body of the receiving neuron.


neurotransmitters in the synapse are re absorbed into the sending neuron


chemicals released sending neuron travel across synapse and bind to receptor on receiving neuron


pathway is fast acting and involved in mood regulation


pathway involved with schizophrenia and parkinson's disease

nervous system

consists of all nerve cells. Body's speedy, electro-chemical communication system

central nervous system

brain and spinal cord

peripheral nervous system

sensory and motor neurons that connect the cns to the rest of the body

sensory neurons

carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the cns

motor neurons

carry outgoing information from the cns to muscles and glands. Interneurons connect the two neurons


primary part of brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells and enters the skull. it is responsible for autonomic survival functions


base of the brainstem that controls heart beat and breathing


is the brain's sensory switchboard located on top of the brainstem. It directs messages to the sensory areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla

reticular formation

a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal

frontal lobe

sense of self, motor control, and higher mental abilities such as reasoning and planning

parietal lobe

sensaion such as touch, temperature, and pressure

occipital lobe



posture, coordination, muscle tone, and memory of skills and habits

temporal lobe

hearing and language

limbic system

hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, and parts of thalamus


consists of two lima bean-sized neural clusters linked to emotions of fear and anger

cerebral cortex

intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemisphere. It is the body's ultimate control and processing center

endocrine system

slow chemical communication system. communication is carried out by hormones synthesized by a set of glands


chemicals synthesized by glands that are secreted in the blood stream. hormones affect the brain and other body tissues


an amplified recording of the electrical waves sweeping across the brain's surface, measured by electrodes placed on the scalp

PET Scan

a visual display of brain activity that detects a radioactive form of glucose while the brain performs a given task

divided brain

our brain has 2 hemispheres. The left processes reading, writing, speaking, mathematics and comprehension skills

Characteristics passed on from parents

belief, faith, politics, abilities, intelligence, and health


contain dna are are situated in the nucleus of a cell. each cell contains 46 chromosomes.


segments within dna that consist of genes that produce proteins to determine out development

twins and adoption studies

uses sets of twins to study the effects of heredity and environment


refers to a person's stable emotional reactivity and intensity. identical twins express similar temperaments suggesting heredity predisposes temperament

newborn temperaments

easy children
difficult children
slow-to-warm up children
remaining children

authoritarian parents

enforce rigid rules and demand strict obedience to authority; children tend to be emotionally stiff and lacking in curiosity

overly permissive parents

give little guidance, allow too much freedom, or don't hold children accountable for their actions; children tend to be dependent and immature and frequently misbehave

african american families

emphasize loyalty, interdependence, perseverance, respect, and resourcefulness

hispanic families

stress family values, pride, loyalty, respect, and cooperation

asian-american families

stress group loyalty, interdependence, achievement, respect, and self-discipline

arab-american families

emphasize obedience, discipline, success, hospitality, hardwork, and achievement


a fertilized egg with 100 cells that become increasingly diverse


embryo turns into fetus at 9 weeks


chemicals or viruses that can enter the placenta and harm the developing fetus

sensitive periods

a period of increased sensitivity to environmental influences. a time when certain events must occur for normal development to take place

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