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Unit 3 Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 9 Fundamentals of Genetics


a feild of biology devoted to understanding how characteristics are transmitted from parents to offspring


the transmission of characteristics from parents to offspring


genetically determined vanant of a characteristic, such as yellow flower colors


pollen grains produced in the male reproduction parts of a flower


pollen is transferred from the anthers of a flower of the stigma


pure for a trait always produce offspring with that trait when they self-pollinate

P Generation

true-breeding parents

F1 Generation

offspring of the P generation the first full filial generation

F2 Generation

offspring of the second filial generation


factor because it masked , or dominated, the factor for the other trait in the pair


the trait did not appear in the F1 generation but reappeared in the F2 generation

Law of Segregation

states that factors separate independently of one another during the formation of gametes


each of two of more alternative form of gene


an organisms genetic makeup


an organisms appearance


both alleles of a pair are alike, the organisms is said to be; dominant


when two alleles in the pair are different; recessive

Monohybird Cross

a cross in which only one characteristic is tracked

Punnet Square

diagram to aid them in predicting the probable distribution of inhered traits in the offspring

Test Cross

an individual of unknown genotype is crossed with a homozygous recessive individual

Complete Dominance

a relationship, one allele was completely dominant over another

Incomplete Dominance

the F1 offspring will have a phenotype in between that of the parents


occurs when both alleles for a gene are expressed in a heterozygous offspring

Dihybird Cross

is a cross in which two characteristics are tracked

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