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Chapter 9 Modern Biology (Holt, Rinehart and Winston)

Unit 3 Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 9 Fundamentals of Genetics
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Genetics
a feild of biology devoted to understanding how characteristics are transmitted from parents to offspring
Heredity
the transmission of characteristics from parents to offspring
Trait
genetically determined vanant of a characteristic, such as yellow flower colors
Pollination
pollen grains produced in the male reproduction parts of a flower
Self-Pollination
pollen is transferred from the anthers of a flower of the stigma
True-Breeding
pure for a trait always produce offspring with that trait when they self-pollinate
P Generation
true-breeding parents
F1 Generation
offspring of the P generation the first full filial generation
F2 Generation
offspring of the second filial generation
Dominant
factor because it masked , or dominated, the factor for the other trait in the pair
Recessive
the trait did not appear in the F1 generation but reappeared in the F2 generation
Law of Segregation
states that factors separate independently of one another during the formation of gametes
Allele
each of two of more alternative form of gene
Genotype
an organisms genetic makeup
Phenotype
an organisms appearance
Homozygous
both alleles of a pair are alike, the organisms is said to be; dominant
Heterozygous
when two alleles in the pair are different; recessive
Monohybird Cross
a cross in which only one characteristic is tracked
Punnet Square
diagram to aid them in predicting the probable distribution of inhered traits in the offspring
Test Cross
an individual of unknown genotype is crossed with a homozygous recessive individual
Complete Dominance
a relationship, one allele was completely dominant over another
Incomplete Dominance
the F1 offspring will have a phenotype in between that of the parents
Codominance
occurs when both alleles for a gene are expressed in a heterozygous offspring
Dihybird Cross
is a cross in which two characteristics are tracked