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fat-free mass

Includes all non-fat tissue

Non-fat tissue

All the organs in the body,water,muscle tissue,bones,connective tissue (ligaments &tendons)

Body fat types

Essential and nonessential fats

Essential fats

Lipids in the heart,brain,nerves,mammary tissue,uterine tissue

function of essential fats

necessary for body function. men (3% of normal body weight).women(12% of normal body weight)

Non essential fats

Found mostly in fat cells below skin or around organ.

Non-essential fats function

Storage. Amount depends on age,gender,diet,activity level,metabolism,heredity.

Height & weight tables

used to determine body fat % .Inaccurate and wrong because muscle weighs more than fat.

Percent body fat

Best way to determine body composition .Percent of fat on a person's body.


total body weight above recommended range for good health.

overweight percentage of fat in women

31-33 %

overweight percentage of fat in men

21-25 %

percentage of adults in the U.S. that are overweight

50 %


a more serious degree of overweight

obesity percentage of fat in women

over 33%

obesity percentage of fat in men

over 25 %


Mostly men-store adipose tissue in the abdomen or stomach area,have highest risk of CVD


Mostly women-store adipose tissue in the hip area,less risk of CVD

percentage of adults in the U.S. that are obese

22 %

Assessing body composition

Body mass index,skinfold measurement,underwater weight,BIA,waist to hip ratio

Body mass index

Dividing body weight by height and comparing figure to an index ,fairly accurate

Skinfold measurement

Measures skinfold with calipers at specific sites (3,5,7,9).error of (+) or (-) 3%. Requires practice.

Underwater weight

Muscle is denser than fat underwater(less buoyant).Very expensive but most accurate.


Sending small electrical current through the body.lean mass ,more water,better conductor. fatty tissue,less water,bad conductor.

waist to hip ratio

Measure waist and hip,divide waist by hip and get a number.greater risk of CVD (women above .86,men above .95)

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