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18 terms

AP Language - Logical Fallacies

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Slippery Slope
If A happens, then B, C etc. will follow
Hasty Generalization
conclusion based on insufficient evidence; an assumption based on an inadequate sample
Post hoc, ergo propter hoc
conclusion that assumes that if B occurred after A, then B caused A
Genetic Fallacy
conclusion that the origins of something determines its nature, character, or worth
Begging the Claim
The conclusion that the writer should prove is validated within the claim
Circular Argument
Restates the argument rather than proving it
Either/or
conclusion that oversimplifies the argument by reducing it to only 2 sides or outcomes
ad hominem
attack on the person rather than the idea
red herring
diversionary tactic that avoids key issues
Straw Man
oversimplifies opponents viewpoint and attacks the shallow viewpoint
beg the question
leads audience to accept conclusion without considering evidence
non sequitor
conclusion does not follow the premise
Tu Quoque
"You too"; you should not believe this person because they are a bad person or hypocrite
overgeneralization
making a logical leap far greater than what the data allows
ad populum
emotional appeal to the common values or deep biases of the masses
appeal to ignorance
the claim must be true simply because nobody can disprove it
loaded questions
questions worded unfairly so any answer will support the writers assumptions
tautology
empty statement that is composed of simpler statements that make it logically true