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Earth's Surface


water that flows over the groun surface rather than soaking into the ground


a tiny groove in soil made by flowing water


A large channel in soil that carries runoff after a rainstorm


a channel through which water is continually flowing downhill


a stream or river that flows into a larger river

Flood Plain

the flat, wide area of land along a river


a looplike bend in the course of a river

Oxbow Lake

a meander cut off from a river


a landform made of sediment that is deposited where a river flows into an ocean or lake

Alluvial Fan

a wide, sloping deposite of sediment formed where a stream leaves a mountain range


water that fills the cracks and spaces in undergourn soil and rock layers


an icicle-like structure that hangs from the ceiling of a cavern


a columnlike form that grows upward from the floor of a cavarn

Karst Topography

a region in which a layer of limestone close to the surface creates deep valleys, caverns, and sinkholes

How does runoff affect the rate of erosion?

more runoff increases the rate of erosion

Put these in order of size from biggest to smallest: creek, rill, gully, river

River, creek, gully, rill

A river's ___ is the flat, wide area of land along side of it.

flood plain

the term geologists use for underground water is ___.


When runoff travels downhill, it forms tiny grooves in soil called___.


A ___ is a deposit that hangs from the roof of a cave.


A type of landscape in rainy regions where caverns, sinkholes, and deep valleys are common is called ____.

Karst landscape

A ___ is a large groove, or channel inthe soil that carries runoff after a storm.


A cone-shaped deposit that rises from the floor of a cave is known as a ___.


The water that moves over the land and carries particles with it is called ___.


A ___ is a channel along which water is continually flowing down a slope.


Where a stream leaves a mountain range you will find an ___, a wide, sloping deposit of sediment.

alluvial fan

A bend in a river's shaped like a loop is called a ___.


What are five landforms formed by river erosion?

valleys, waterfalls, flood plains, meanders, and oxbow lakes

How does ground water cause erosion?

ground water causes erosion throug a process of chemical weathering

What are two landforms formed by river deposition?

alluvial fans and deltas

Vegetation such as grasses ___ runoff.


An ___ is a meander that has been cut off from the river.

oxbow lake

Ground water can cause erosion through ___ weathering


A ___ forms when sediment gets laid down where a river flows into an ocean.


Waterfalls and rapids occur where rivers meet and flow over ___ rock.


Deltas and alluvial fans form at the point of river ___.


What is a channel with continually flowing water that flows into a larger river called?


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