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What do viruses have in common? (3)

surrounded by a protein coat called a capsid, individual proteins are called capsomeres, have either RNA or DNA inside of capsid

How do viruses differ? (6)

Shape, size, some have an additonal envelope that surrounds capsid, a lipid bilayer, membranos, host specific

Helical Virus

Tobacco Mosaic Virus, infects tomatoes


Icosahedron, symptoms of common cold

Enveloped Virus

most are RNA viruses, influenza H1N1, mumps, measles. chicken, pox, herpes, animal viruses


infect bacteria

What is the function of DNA/RNA?

code to tell the cell which proteins to make for the virus, has all the info to replicate the virus

What do proteins do?

attach the viruses to the host cells receptors (plasma membrane), 1st line of defense against hosts immune system - enzymes that play role in infection strategy

What are the two kingdoms of bacteria?

Eubacteria- live everywhere, Archaebacteria- harsh enviroments (salty, hot springs, hydrothermal vents, deprived of O2)

What do all bacteria have?

All bacteria have a prokaryotic cell organization because they do not possess a nucleus

What is the function of the cell wall?

protects the cell from injury, determines shape

What is the function of the cell membrane?

regulates what enters and leaves the cell

Function of ribosomes?

make proteins by translation

Function of cytoplasm?

holds organelles, contains enzymes

function of DNA?

codes for proteins

Function of pilus?

used to contact other cells (holds 2 cells together)

Function of flagellum?


What are the three things prokaryotes are identified by?

shape, cell wall structure, movement

What are the three basic shapes?

rod shaped, spherical, spiral

What are rod shaped bacteria called?


Spherical bacteria are called?


Spiral shaped bacteria are called?


What is the name if bacteria colonizes in pairs?


Rod Shaped bacterium that colonizes in paris?


What is the name if bacteria colonize in clumps?


spherical bacterium colonizes in chains name?


What is the name if bacterium colonizes in clumps?


Spherical shaped bacterium that colonizes in clumps?


Facts about a Gram positive bacterium

simple, stain violet, cell wall made of peptidoglycan, would rather have it

Facts about a Gram negative bacterium

more complex, stain pink, cell wall lacks peptidoglycan, more difficult to treat

What are the steps of a Staining technique?

1. fix the bacteria to the microscope slide using heat (heat fix), 2. Stain with crystal violet stain (rinse with H20), 2. Apply Grahams Iodine (adhere crystal violet if made of peptidoglycan), 4. Rinse with ethyl alcohol (to remove crystal violet), 5. counter stain with safrinin (pink)

What are the different ways that bacteria move?

flagella, lash,shake, or spinalling forward, glide on slime

Define heterotroph

"other" has to get nutrition & energy from another source

Define autotroph

"self" make own food from organic substances (use outside energy)


dominant form, supply of carbon- organic compounds, energy source- organic compounds, examples- E. Coli in gut


supply of carbon- organic compounds, energy source- sunlight


supply of carbon- inorganic compounds (co2), energy source- sunlight, examples- cyanobacteria, chemoautotroph- inorganic compounds co2, energy source- from chemical reactions involving ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, nitrates, iron containing substances,

What are obligate aerobes?

Prokaryotes that require 02 to carry out cellular respiration

What are obligate anaerobes?

Prokaryotes that do not require 02 or are even killed by 02, they do not conduct respiration but must release energy by fermentation

What are facultative anaerobes?

Prokaryotes that switch between the processes of cellular respiration and fermentation and can survive with or without oxygen, they can live just about anywhere (Ex: e-coli)

When it lives your intestine is it living with or without o2?

without, obligate anaerobe

When it lives in sewage or contaminated h20?

with, obligate aerobe

Steps of a bacterial cell going through binary fission

1. grow to 2x original size, 2. replicates its DNA (DNA polymerase), 3. divides into 2 cells, 4. produces two identical cells

Is binary fission sexual or asexual?

asexual reproduction

Is diversity increased by binary fission?

no unless mutations occur

What is happening in conjugation?

hollow bridge forms gene moves from one cell to another, gene + -, one way transfer of genes, increases diversity

What does a spore do?

survive harsh conditions such as- drying out, extreme heat, lacking of nutrients

Roles that bacteria play

decomposers, nitrogen fixers, human uses

Role as decomposers

recycle nutrients (with fungi, some invertebrates)

Role as nitrogen fixers in Nitrogen cycle

N2 from atmosphere convert to useable form of NH3 (ammonia), for plants & animals, by bacterium root nodules, nitrogen used to make proteins and nucleic acid

What are the four main steps of the nitrogen cycle?

1. assimilation, 2. ammonification, 3. nitrification, 4. denitrification

What is assimilation?

absorption & incorporation of nitrogen into plant and animal compounds

What is ammonification?

bactera converts urea, uric acid (nitrogen wastes) to ammonia

What is nitrification?

formation of nitrates from oxidation of cammonia by bacteria in soil

What is denitrification?

bacteria denitrify NO3 back to n2

What are the two reasons pathogenic bacteria are harmful?

1. release toxins (poisonous), 2. damage cells & tissues they infect

What did Louis Pasteur do?

discovered antibiotics

How do antibiotics work to stop the bacterial infection?

block growth & reproduction of bacteria, interfere with cell wall building, interfere with with action of ribosomes

Explain the concept of bacterial resistance to antibiotics

occurs through conjugation & mutations resistant bacteria are selected for by misuse of antibiotics

What are infectious diseases caused by?

entrance into the body and multiplication of pathogen

Who developed Kochs postulates?

Robert Koch

What are the steps of Kochs postulates?

1. isolate a suspicious organism from the blood of a sick animal, 2. grow it in a pure lab culture, 3. inject it into a new host (healthy) and look for signs of the same disease, 4. Re-isolate the organisims from this sick animal to confirm that is it is the same as in step 1

What are the methods of transmission?

Droplet infection, contaminated food/water, direct contact, indirect contact, animal vector,breaks in the skin

Droplet infection, breaks in the skin

coughing or sneezing, respitory illnesses spread this way----wounds, cuts and animal bites

Contaminated food/ water

most intestinal diseases are spread this way

direct contact, indirect contact

direct contact (STD's), indirect- persons things

animal vector

a vector is a go between that isn't sick but carries the pathogen to another host. Mosquitos, ticks, fleas and lice act as vectors

What is the liquid part of blood called? what does it contain?

liquid part = plasma, contains dissoved salts, sugar, antibodies, hormones, and mainly water

What is the cellular part of blood called?

red blood cells (erthrocytes) and white blood cells (leukocytes)

Red Blood Cells

carry oxygen, very numerous, made in the bone marrow, have no nucleus, circulate 4 months then removed by spleen

What does hemoglobin do?

carries oxygen in red blood cells (has iron that binds to oxygen)

White Blood cells

have no color until stained, several different types, all function to protect the body from disease

What are Macrophages?

white blood cells, "big eaters", largest, engulf pathogens via phagocytosis

What are Granulocytes?

carry granules full of enzymes to destroy pathogens; have multi- lobed nuclei and are also "eaters"

What are Lymphocytes??

smalles, b cells make y-shaped proteins called antibodies that lock onto specific invaders and destroy them (T-lymphocytes mature in the thymus gland, help b and killer t cells) (b lymphoctes mature in the bone marrow, flag antigens and produce antibodies) (killer t's lyse and kill infected cells using toxics

What are platelets?

small bits of cytoplasm that help the blood clot in case of injury

1st line of defense

SKIN, keep pathogens out, mucous-cilia, non-specific

2nd line of defense

treat all invaders the same, acid & enzymes destroy pathogens, interferon is made by cells to prevent virus replication, phagocytes engulf pathogens, body temp rises to kill pathogens, all inflammatory response

3rd line of defense

specific, create specific weapon and keep weapon for use in future, lymphocytes, b-cells make the antibodies, each is antibody specific for a pathogen


born with natural protection because of genetics, others acquired

Active Immunity

1. exposure o actual pathogen, develop symptoms, build antibodies, recover 2. vaccination- inject weakened or dead pathogen. Advtg- lasting protection, disadvtg- slow

Passive Immunity

protection results when antibodies are made by another animal and give to a person at risk for developing a disease, advtg- speed, disadvtg- temporary

Edward Jennar

first vaccine against smallpox


supply of carbon- inorganic compounds co2, energy source- from chemical reactions involving ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, nitrates, iron containing substances,

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