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49 terms

American Government Unit 2 Vocabulary

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Declaration of Independence
break from England, proposed new gov in which all men are created equal, all men have rights and government's are subject to the will of the people
Articles of Confederation
1st Constitution, weaknesses caused a new Constitution to be written
Interstate
Articles of Confederation declared the federal gov to have no power over commerce b/w states
Intrastate
Articles of Confederation declared the federal gov to have no power over commerce w/in states
Constitution
basic law that sets forth form of gov and powers
1787
Articles of Confederation thrown out, Constitution is written
1788
Constitution is ratified
1789
First national elections
1791
Bill of Rights added to Constitution
Preamble
Introduction to the Constitution, tells goals of founding fathers, it is still a work in progress
Commander In-Chief
President, Commander of all Military, declared in Preamble
Articles
7 Articles in the Constitution, 2nd part of the Constitution
Article 1
Created Legislative Branch and declared powers
Article 2
Created Executive Branch and declared powers
Article 3
Created Judicial Branch and declared powers
Article 4
Relationships b/w states-states and states-federal gov
Article 5
Amendment Process (how Constitution can be changed)
Article 6
General Provisions (didn't fit in 1-5), Constitution and federal gov and supreme law of the land, all state and federal officers are bound by oath to follow the Constitution
Article 7
How the Constitution was to be ratified (9 out of 13 states approval)
Sections
3rd part of Constitution
Clauses
4th part of Constitution
Amendments
5th part of Constitution
Amendment Process
how the Constitution can be changed
14th Amendment
Due Process Amendment, everyone is guaranteed protection underneath the law
26th Amendment
limited to minimum voting age to 18
Bill of Rights
guaranteed human beings basic, human rights, first 10 Amendments to the Constitution
Popular Sovereignty
all power of the gov comes from the people, distributed through the Constitution
Unwritten Constitution
all customs or practices that have become a part of our system
Federal Principle
national and state power are equal, but if conflict arises, federal gov wins
Strict Constructionists
gov can't do anything that isn't specifically stated in the Constitution (ex. Madison)
Loose Constructionists
interpret or read b/w the lines of the Constitution (ex. Hamilton)
E Pluribus Unum
One out of many, Latin, motto of the US (united)
Delegated-Expressed-Enumerated Powers
powers given specifically to the federal gov
Article 1 Section 8
Delegated-Expressed-Enumerated powers given specifically to the federal gov,
1. Declare War
2. Govern Territories
3. Govern District of Columbia
4. Punish Piracy
5. Borrow Money
Implied Powers
gov has the power to do whatever they want to carry out the powers they were specifically given
Elastic Clause
gov has the power to do whatever they want to carry out the powers they were specifically given
Necessary of Proper Clause
gov has the power to do whatever they want to carry out the powers they were specifically given
Reserved-Retained-Residual Powers
powers given specifically to the state gov, 10th Amendment
(ex. edu, traffic laws, marriage)
Concurrent Powers
powers that both the federal gov and state gov have (ex. power to tax)
Checks and Balances
each of the 3 branches can check actions by the other 2
Separation of Powers
founding father didn't want one person to take power, created 3 branches of gov, each w/ own specific duties (also established checks and balances)
Writ of Habeas Corpus
right to know why you have been arrested
Ex Post Facto Law
can't be charged for something that wasn't illegal at the time
Bill of Attainder
can't pass a law that prevents the right to a regular, fair trial
Inherent Powers
powers given to the federal gov that apply to foreign affairs
Full Faith and Credit Clause
Article 4, Section 8, each state honors each others laws
Suffrage
the civil right to vote in a democracy
Statute
law passed by a legislative body
Judicial Review
power of the courts to declare a law unconstitutional