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nearsightedness, light rays focus in front of retina


farsightedness, light rays focus behind retina


unequal curvature of lens


associated with aging, results in difficulty with near vision


pink eye, inflammation of the conjunctiva, contagious


inflammation of the eyelid, caused by excessive dryness and oiliness


stye, acute inflammation of oil or sweat glands of the eyelid


meibomian cyst, accumulation of lipid material from a chronically obstructed meibomian gland in the eyelid


inflammation of the cornea, caused by bacteria, virus, or fungal infections, herpes simplex keratitis most common


increased IOP, occurs after the age of 40 - eye discomfort, reduced peripheral vision (open angle), painful, hard sightless eyes (angle-closure)


opacity or cloudiness of lens - halo around lights


hemorrhage into the anterior chamber, caused by trauma

detached retina

the sensory layer becomes separated from the pigmented layer of the retina - "floaters", definite gaps in vision or blind spots

blind spot

scotoma, place in the optic disk that has no photoreceptors

conductive hearing loss

sound waves to the organs of hearing are disturbed

sensorineural hearing loss

disturbance of the organs in the inner ear or the transmitting nerve

central hearing loss

brains inability to interpret sound after they have been transmitted

functional hearing loss

no organic cause is found, no damage to auditory nerve is visible, stems from an underlying psychological problem

external otitis

inflammation of external ear, swimmers ear

otitis media

inflammation of middle ear, serous, chronic, acute purulent, chronic purulent


bony fixation of the stapes, slow or stops vibrations of stapes = impairs or destroys hearing


a growth that occurs when a tympanic membrane perforation occurs


infection of one of the mastoid bones, usually an extension of a middle ear infection that was untreated


inflammation of the labyrinthine canals of the inner ear, most common cause of vertigo

acoustic neuroma

non-cancerous tumor that develops on the nerve that connects the ear to the brain


fluctuations in the production or reabsorbsion of fluid in the inner ear; there is too much circulating fluid - vertigo, tinnitus

diabetic retinopathy

characterized by capillary microaneurysms, hemorrhage, exudates and formation of new vessels, treatment is photocoagulation

macular degeneration

the damage to the macula that occurs in both eyes, with one eye's vision tending to deteriorate more rapidly. blurred vision is the first symptomatic (dry), distortion of vision; lines become wavy (wet)

open angle glaucoma

familial tendency with onset age 45-65, slow and progressive vision loss, halos, and eye pain, drugs must be taken for life

closed angle glaucoma

rapid onset of decreased vision, halos, and severe eye pain, medical emergency, treated with emergency meds

acute otitis media

inflammation or infection of middle ear, severe throbbing pain behind tympanic membrane, more common in children because of shorter, straighter eustachian tube

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