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RAH TEST 1
Terms in this set (36)
Define spina bifida. In your definition describe what it is, describe the anatomy that is affected, and describe its embryological origin.
Characteristics of C1 and C2?
C1—atlas; supports the skull; no body; no spine; consists of anterior and posterior arches and transverse processes; articulates superiorly with occipital condyles (forms atlanto-occipital joint); articulates inferiorly with the axis (forms atlantoaxial joint)
C2—has the dens or odontoid process (projects superiorly from the body) which articulates with the anterior arch of the atlas
How many vertebrae are there and how many per section are there?
What nutrient deficiency is associated with spina bifida?
What are the classes of spina bifida?
Describe the triple screen test during pregnancy (when during pregnancy is it done, what does it involve and what it measures?
Would a higher than normal or lower than normal measure of alpha-fetoprotein indicate spina bifida?
Describe the anatomy & histology of the intervertebral (IV) disc. In your description, indicate the relative thickness of the anulus fibrosus on the anterior, lateral and posterior aspects of the disc.
Based on question 1, what is the usual direction of nucleus pulposus herniation?
Where are IV discs NOT located in the vertebral column?
Where are IV herniations MOST common? Why?
Describe the anatomy of the spinal roots as they exit the spinal column in the cervical vs. lumbar regions. Explain why there is a difference.
What is(are) the purpose(s) of lumbar puncture?
Describe the position of the patient during LP
Blood is observed in a CSF sample. What is a potential source of this blood?
Compare and contrast caudal epidural anesthesia, spinal anesthesia, and epidural anesthesia. What "connective tissue strand" extends from the end of the spinal cord to the coccyx?
What anatomical landmarks would you palpate to find the sacral hiatus?
Identify the primary and secondary vertebral curvatures of the adult.
Compare adult and fetal vertebral curvatures
What is kyphosis?
What is lordosis?
Describe the histology of the vertebral body as osteoporosis progresses from early/moderate to late stages?
Describe what happens to the intervertebral discs in late osteoporosis.
Describe a Jefferson fracture.
Describe a hangman's fracture.
Explain the anatomical reason that a person such an injury would be unable to breath.
What determines whether a scoliosis is structural or functional?
Idiopathic scoliosis develops in males and females at different ages. Identify these differences.
How are cervical nerves numbered? Contrast this with lumbar nerves
Ligaments between vertebrae?
What would the CSF look like in bacterial vs. viral meningitis (usually)?
Which is more serious, bacterial or viral meningitis?
What are common bacteria that cause bacterial meningitis?
What are the treatments and preventions for bacterial meningitis?
Describe the zygapophysial joint (include the classification of this joint).
synovial plane joint that forms between the articular processes between two adjacent vertebrae when they meet.
How does damage to the zygapophysial joint relate to dermatomes and myotomes?
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