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Fluid and Electrolyte Chart

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135-145 mEq/l
normal sodium
sodium
major ECF cation
Hyponatremia
when sodium level is below 135
hypernatremia
when sodium level is above 145
hypovolemia
ECF volume deficit; happens when Na+ and H2O are often proportionately lost
hypervolemia
ECF volume excess: happens when Na+ and H2O are often proportionately gained
primary water deficit
no available water, unable to respond to thirst, diabetes insipidus
primary water deficit
decreased weight, decreased turgor, dry mucous membranes, increase hematocrit, increase hemoglobin, decreased urine volume, decreased BP, thirst, confusion are symptoms of
primary water excess
SIADH and excess H2O intake indicate
primary water excess
weight gain, edema, hemodilution, and bounding pulse are signs and symptoms of
3.5-5.5 mEq/l
normal potassium level
potassium
principle ICF cation, impt. for muscle contraction all over body. Especially impt. for rhythmic cardiac contraction. controlled by kidneys
hypokalemia
potassium less than 3.5; diuretics cause this
hyperkalemia
potassium more than 5.5; acute renal failure and burns and crush injuries cause this
hypokalemia
muscle weakness and fatigue, and heart dysrhythmias are signs and symptoms of this
hyperkalemia
muscle irritability is a symptom of this
9-11/dl
normal calcium level
calcium
Important for transmission of nerve impulses, muscle contraction, blood clotting, bones and teeth formation
hypocalcemia
calcium levels below 9 mg
hypercalcemia
calcium levels over 11.0 mg
hypocalcemia
decreased dietary intake and vitamin d deficiency are causes of
hypercalcemia
prolonged immobility is a cause of hypercalcemia
hypocalcemia
numbness, tingling of extremities, muscle cramps/twitching, tetany, convulsions, positive trousseau's sign, chvostek's sign
positive trousseau's sign
carpopedal spasm with BP cuff inflated on arm
chvostek's sign
facial muscle twitching when tap facial nerve in front of ear
hypercalcemia
pathologic fracture that takes place in weak or diseased area of the bones is a symptom of
respiratory acidosis
carbonic acid excess; resp. tract is source of problem
respiratory acidosis
any condition which interferes with normal respiration so that CO2 retained: pneumonia
respiratory acidosis
signs and symptoms often related to respiratory dz; they include resp. difficulty, increase pulse and increase respiratory
respiratory alkalosis
carbonic acid deficit; caused by any condition causing hyperventilation so that excess CO2 is "blown off"
metabolic acidosis
base bicarbonate deficit; excess acids produced, uses up available bicarb; diabetes
metabolic acidosis
increase rate and depth of resp. to "blow off" more CO2; kidneys will excrete more H+ (if no renal failure)