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135-145 mEq/l

normal sodium


major ECF cation


when sodium level is below 135


when sodium level is above 145


ECF volume deficit; happens when Na+ and H2O are often proportionately lost


ECF volume excess: happens when Na+ and H2O are often proportionately gained

primary water deficit

no available water, unable to respond to thirst, diabetes insipidus

primary water deficit

decreased weight, decreased turgor, dry mucous membranes, increase hematocrit, increase hemoglobin, decreased urine volume, decreased BP, thirst, confusion are symptoms of

primary water excess

SIADH and excess H2O intake indicate

primary water excess

weight gain, edema, hemodilution, and bounding pulse are signs and symptoms of

3.5-5.5 mEq/l

normal potassium level


principle ICF cation, impt. for muscle contraction all over body. Especially impt. for rhythmic cardiac contraction. controlled by kidneys


potassium less than 3.5; diuretics cause this


potassium more than 5.5; acute renal failure and burns and crush injuries cause this


muscle weakness and fatigue, and heart dysrhythmias are signs and symptoms of this


muscle irritability is a symptom of this


normal calcium level


Important for transmission of nerve impulses, muscle contraction, blood clotting, bones and teeth formation


calcium levels below 9 mg


calcium levels over 11.0 mg


decreased dietary intake and vitamin d deficiency are causes of


prolonged immobility is a cause of hypercalcemia


numbness, tingling of extremities, muscle cramps/twitching, tetany, convulsions, positive trousseau's sign, chvostek's sign

positive trousseau's sign

carpopedal spasm with BP cuff inflated on arm

chvostek's sign

facial muscle twitching when tap facial nerve in front of ear


pathologic fracture that takes place in weak or diseased area of the bones is a symptom of

respiratory acidosis

carbonic acid excess; resp. tract is source of problem

respiratory acidosis

any condition which interferes with normal respiration so that CO2 retained: pneumonia

respiratory acidosis

signs and symptoms often related to respiratory dz; they include resp. difficulty, increase pulse and increase respiratory

respiratory alkalosis

carbonic acid deficit; caused by any condition causing hyperventilation so that excess CO2 is "blown off"

metabolic acidosis

base bicarbonate deficit; excess acids produced, uses up available bicarb; diabetes

metabolic acidosis

increase rate and depth of resp. to "blow off" more CO2; kidneys will excrete more H+ (if no renal failure)

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