What is life? A Guide to Biology: Chapter 3
Terms in this set (74)
The smallest unit of life that can function independently; a three-dimensional structure, surrounded by a membrane and, in the case of prokaryotes and most plants, a cell wall, in which many of the essential chemical reactions of the life of an organism take place.
A unifying and universally accepted theory in biology, that holds that all living organisms are made up of one or more cells, and that all cells arise from other, pre-existing cells.
A cell with a membrane-bound nucleus containing DNA, membrane-bound organelles, and internal structures organized into compartments.
An organism composed of eukaryotic cells. (good - kernel).
A cell bound by a plasma membrane enclosing the cell contents (cytoplasm, DNA, and ribosomes); there is no nucleus or other organelles.
An organism consisting of a prokaryotic cell (all prokaryotic cells are one celled organisms).
A complex, thin, two-layered membrane that encloses the cytoplasm of the cell, holding the contents in place and regulating what enters and leaves the cell; also called the cell membrane.
The jelly-like fluid that fills the inside of the cell; in eukaryotes, the cytoplasm contains the organelles.
Granular bodies in the cytoplasm, released from their initial positions on the rough endoplasmic reticulum, that copy the information in segments of DNA to provide instructions for the constructions of proteins.
A rigid structure outside of the cell membrane that protects and gives shape to the cell; found in many prokaryotes, and plants.
Long, thin, whip-like projections from the cell body of q prokaryote that aid in cell movement through the medium in which the organism lives; in animals, the only cell with a flagellum is the sperm cells.
A thin, hair-like projection that helps a prokaryote attach to surfaces.
A membrane-enclosed structure in eukaryotic cells that contain the organism's genetic information as linear strands of DNA in the form of chromosomes.
Specialized structures in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells with specific functions, such as the rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and mitochondria.
Theory of the origin of eukaryotes that holds that in the past two different types prokaryotes engaged in a close partnership and eventually one, capable of performing photosynthesis, was subsumed into the other , a larger prokaryote; the smaller prokaryote made some of its photosynthesis energy available to the host, and over time the two became symbiotic and eventually a single more complex organism in which the smaller prokaryote had evolved into the chloroplast of the new organism (smaller scenario can be developed for the evolution of mitochondria)
The organelle in plant cells in which photosynthesis occurs.
The folding in of a membrane or layer of tissue so that an outer surface becomes in inner surface.
A lipid that is the major component of the plasma membrane; phospholipids are structurally similar to fats, but contain a phosphorus atom and have two, not three, fatty acid chains.
A small molecule that forms the head region of a triglyceride fat molecule.
Having an electrical charge.
Attracted to water, as, for an example, polar molecules that readily form hydrogen bonds with water.
Repelled by water, as, for an example, non-polar molecules that end to minimize contact with water.
The structure of the plasma membrane; two layers of phospholipids, arranged tail to tail (the tails are hydrophobic and so avoid contact with water), with the hydrophilic head regions facing the watery extracellular fluid and intracellular fluid.
A protein that can penetrate a phospholipid bilayer of a cell's plasma membrane.
A protein that resides primarily on the inner or outer surface of the phospholipid bilayer which constitutes the plasma membrane of the cell.
A protein in the plasma membrane that binds to specific chemicals in the cells external environment to regulate processes within the cell. For example, cells in the heart have receptor proteins that bind to adrenaline.
A protein un the plasma membrane that provides a "finger print" on the outside-facing surface of the cell, making it recognizable to other cells; recognition protein make it possible for the immune system to distinguish the body's own cells from invaders that may produce infection, and also help cells bind to other cells or molecules.
A transmembrane protein that provides a channel or passageway through which large or strongly charged molecules can pass; transport proteins are of a number of shapes and sizes, making possible the transport of a wide variety of molecules.
Enzymatic proteins (see enzyme)
A that protein that initiates and accelerates a chemical reaction in a living organism enzymatic proteins take a part in chemical reactions on the inside and outside surfaces of the plasma membrane.
One of the sterols, lipids important in regulating growth and development; cholesterol is an important component of most cell membranes, helping the membrane to maintain its flexibility.
A term that describes the structure of a plasma membrane, which is made of several different types of molecules, many of which are not fixed in place, but float, held in proper orientation by hydrophilic and hydrophobic forces.
Diffusion of molecules through the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane that takes [place through the transport protein (a :carrier molecule") embedded in the membrane, molecules that require the assistance of a carrier molecule are those that are too big to cross the membrane directly or are electrically charged and would be repelled by the middle layer of the membrane.
A substance that is dissolved in a gas or liquid; in a solution of water and sugar, sugar is the solute.
The gas or liquid in which a substance is dissolved; in a solution of water and sugar, water is the solute.
Diffusion of molecules directly through the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane that takes place without the assistance of other molecules; oxygen and carbon dioxide because they are small and carry no charge that would cause them to be repelled by the middle layer of the membrane, can pass through the membrane in this way.
Diffusion of molecules directly through the phosphlipid bilayer of the plasma membrane that takes place trough a transport protein (a carrier molecule") embedded in the membrane, molecules that the assistance of a carrier molecule are those that are too big to cross the membrane directly or are electrically charged and would be repelled by the middle layer of the membrane.
A type of passive transport in which water molecules move across a membrane such as the plasma membrane of a cell; the direction of osmosis is determined by the relative concentrations of solutes on either side of the membrane.
For a cell in solution, a measure of the concentration of solutes outside the cell relative to that inside of the cell.
Of two solutions, that with a higher concentration of solutes.
Of two solutions, that with a lower concentration of solutes.
Refers to solutions with equal concentrations of solutes.
Molecular movement that depends on the input of energy, which is necessary when the molecules to be moved are large or are being moved against their concentration gradient.
Primary active transport
Active transport using energy released directly from ATP.
Secondary active transport
Active transport in which there is no direct involvement of ATP (adenosine triphosphate); the transport protein simultaneously moves one molecule against its concentrations gradient while letting another flow down its concentration gradient.
A cellular process in which large particles, solid of divided, outside the cell are surrounded by a fold of the plasma membrane, which pinches off, forming a vesicle and the enclosed particle now moves into the cell; the three types of Endocytosis are Phagocytosis, Pinocytosis, and Receptor-mediated endocytosis.
A cellular in which particles within the cell, solid or dissolved, are enclosed in a vesicle and transported to the plasma membrane, where the membrane of the vesicle merges with the plasma membrane and the material in the vesicle is expelled to the extracellular fluid for use throughout the body.
A small, membrane -bound sac within a cell
One of the three types of endocytosis, in which relatively large solid particles are engulfed by the plasma membrane, a vesicle is formed, and the particle is moved into the cell.
One of the three types of endocytosis, in which dissolved particles and liquids are engulfed by the plasma membrane, a vesicle is formed and the material is moved into the cell; the vesicle formed in pinocytosis are generally much smaller than those formed in phagocytosis.
One of the three types of endocytosis, in which receptors on the surface of a cell bind to specific molecules; the plasma membrane then engulfs both molecule and receptor and draws them into the cell.
A continuous, water-tight connection between adjacent animal cells; tight junctions are particularly important in the small intestine, where digestion occurs, to ensure that nutrients do not leak between cells into the body cavity and so be lost as a source of energy.
Irregularly spaced connections between adjacent animal cells that, in the manner of Velcro, hold cells together by attachments but are not water-tight; they provide mechanical strength and are found in muscle tissue and in much of the tissue that lines the cavities of animal bodies.
A junctions between adjacent animal cells in the form of a pore in each of the plasma membranes surrounded by a protein that links the two cells and acts like a channel between them to allow materials to pass between the cells.
The limiting factor of cell growth that occurs when normal cells come into contact; in cancer cells, contact inhibition does not take place and the cells continue to divide.
In plants, microscopic tube-like channels connecting the cells and enabling communication and transport between them.
A membrane that surrounds the nucleus of a cell, separating it from the cytoplasm, consisting of two bilayers and perforated by pores enclosed in embedded proteins that allows the passage of large molecules from nucleus to cytoplasm and from cytoplasm to nucleus; also called the nuclear envelope.
A mass of long, thin fibers consisting of DNA and proteins in the nucleus of the cell.
An area near the center of the nucleus where subunits of the ribosomes are assembled.
A network of protein structures in the cytoplasm of plants and animals that serves as scaffolding, adding support and giving animals cells of different types their characteristics shapes; the cytoskeleton serves as tracks guiding the intercellular traffic flow and, because it is flexible and can generate force, gives cells some ability to control their movement.
Short projections from the cell surface, often occurring in large numbers on a single cell that beat against the intercellular fluid to move the fluid past the cell.
The organelle in plant and animal cells that converts the energy stored in food in the chemical bonds of carbohydrate, fat, and protein molecules into a form usable by the cell for all its functions and activities.
In mitochrondrion, the region between the inner and outer membranes.
In a mitochondrion, the space within the inner membrane, where the carriers NADH and FADH2 begin the electron transport chain by carrying high-energy electrons to molecules embedded in the inner membrane.
A round, membrane-enclosed, enzyme and acid-filled vesicle in the cell that digests and recycles cellular waste products and consumed material.
A system of organelles (the rough endoplasmic reticulum, the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and the Golgi apparatus) that surrounds the nucleus; it produces and modifies necessary molecules, breaks down toxic chemicals and cellular by-products, and is thus responsible for many of the fundamental functions of the cell.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (rough ER)
An organelle, part of the endomembrane system, structurally like a series of interconnected, flattened sacs connected to the nuclear envelope; called "rough" because its surface is studded with ribosomes.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
An organelle, part of the endomembrane system, structurally like a series of branched tubes; called lipids such as fatty acids, phospholipids, and steroids.
An organelle, part of the endomembrane system, structurally like a flattened stack of unconnected membranes, each known as a Golgi body; the Golgi apparatus processes molecules synthesized in the cell and packages those molecules that are destined for use elsewhere in the body.
In plants, a large, fluid-filled organelle, surrounded by a membrane, important in nutrient storage, waste management, predator deterrence, sexual reproduction, and physical support.
In plants, the pressure of the contents of the cell against the cell wall, which is maintained by osmosis as water ruches into the cell when it contains high concentrations of dissolved substances; turgor pressure allows non-woody plants to stand upright, and its loss causes wilting.
In the leaf of a green plant, the fluid in the inner compartment of a chloroplast; which contains DNA and protein making machinery.
Interconnected membranous structures in stroma of a chloroplast, where light energy is collected and the conversion of light energy to chemical energy is photosynthesis takes place.
Molecular movement that occurs spontaneously, without the input of energy, the two types of passive transport are diffusion and osmosis.
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