Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
KIN 310 Test 2
Terms in this set (230)
What is skeletal muscle made up of?
-fascia (connective tissue)
What are muscle fibers made up of?
-bundles of muscle fibers called fascicles
What do fascicles contain?
What do myofibrils contain?
-contractile proteins, actin and myosin
What is fascia?
-wraps the layers of skeletal muscle
What are the purposes of fascia?
-provides sliding and gliding environment for muscles
-suspends organs in proper place
-transmits movements from muscle to bone
-provides wrapping for nerves and blood vessels as they pass between muscles
What are the three components of fascia?
What is epimysium?
-layer of connective tissue around the entire muscle (all the bundles)
What is perimysium?
-connective tissue surrounding the individual bundles of muscle fibers
What is endomysium?
-connective tissue between the individual fibers
What is a tendon?
-intramuscular connective tissue that merges with dense connective tissue at the end of the muscle to attach it to bone
Compare the strength of a tendon to the strength of a muscle.
-tendons are stronger than muscles
-small tendons can withstand the tension developed by larger muscles
Where is muscular blood supply located?
-in the endomysium
How much blood supply is needed for the muscles?
-some muscles may need 100% more blood during maximal exercise than during rest
What system is responsible for muscle contraction?
-the neuromuscular system
What are motor neurons/nerves?
-neurons that exit the spinal cord and innervate muscle
What is a motor unit?
-a single motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it innervates
What do low threshold motor units look like?
-smaller muscle fiber size
-lower number of fibers
-slow twitch fibers
In terms of training principles, what increases capillarization?
Do muscle fiber types within a given motor unit vary?
-no, they are the same type
-fast twitch or slow twitch
What are Type I fibers?
What are Type IIa fibers?
-fast oxidative glycolytic
What are Type IIx fibers?
How can muscle fiber type be switched?
-cannot be switched from slow to fast, vice versa
-from type IIa to type IIx or vice versa
How can Type IIa fibers be changed to Type IIx and vice versa?
What are some metabolic change that occur with endurance training?
-enhanced oxidative capacity of fast and slow twitch fibers
-some increased size of slow, but they are small to begin with
Which fibers are "overloaded" with aerobic training?
What are some changes to muscle fibers that occur with strength training?
-selective increase in size of fast twitch fibers
-shift within type II, from fast glycolytic to intermediate (fast oxidative glycolytic)
What are the traits of slow twitch fibers in terms of energy systems?
-high oxidative (aerobic)
-low glycolytic (anaerobic)
Compare intermediate fibers to slow and fast twitch.
-contract faster and produce more force than slow twitch
-contract more slowly and produce less force than fast twitch
-more fatigue resistant than fast twitch
-less fatigue resistant than slow twitch
What are the traits of intermediate fibers in terms of energy systems?
What are the traits of fast twitch fibers in terms of energy systems?
What are the functional differences among fiber types?
-slow fibers: more energy efficient, produce more force for the amount of energy used (economical), and fatigue-resistant
-fast twitch: more explosive and powerful
What is the oxidative hierarchy?
-slow twitch fibers are always recruited first
What is the difference in muscle fiber size between males and females?
-females have smaller fibers than males
What do muscle fibers contain?
-myofibrils, which contain actin and myosin
How many capillaries supply an average muscle fiber?
3-4 per muscle fiber
How does capillary supply to muscle fibers change with training?
-athletes have 5-7 per muscle fiber
What type of nerves innervates your muscles?
What determines fiber:nerve ratio?
-muscle fiber size
-number of fibers
-type of fibers
What is the "all or none" law?
-a motor unit contracts maximally or not all, which means that a muscle fiber contracts maximally or not at all
What is the principle of "gradation" and how does it affect movement?
-motor units are recruited from small to large
-units that produce small units of force of a low threshold of activation
-units that produce greater amounts of force have a higher threshold of activation
What two factors determine the force of any given muscular contraction?
-threshold (low or high)
-type of muscle fiber (slow or fast)
Which motor units are activated first? Do these units typically produce a small or large amount of force?
-low threshold units are activated first
-they produce a small amount of force
What are the traits of motor units that produce greater amounts of force?
-they have a higher threshold of activation
-they have a high number of fibers
What does the ramp-like recruitment seen during muscular contraction ensure?
-that easily fatigued, fast twitch fibers are protected because the slow twitch fibers will always be recruited first
What is the functional capacity of a motor unit determined by?
-the type of muscle fibers that make up the unit
In terms of speed of contraction and force production, describe slow twitch fibers.
-slow speed of contraction
-low force production
In terms of speed of contraction and force production, describe fast twitch fibers.
-fast speed of contraction
-high force production
Describe intermediate fiber in terms of speed of contraction and force production?
-fast speed of contraction
-moderate force production
How will fiber type vary among individuals?
% of fiber type varies
How does fiber type vary within the same individual?
-varies within the same muscle
-varies between different muscles
Will training affect whether you have predominately slow twitch or fast twitch muscle fibers?
-no, it is genetic and fiber types cannot be converted
How does training affect muscle fibers?
-increase in size of muscle fiber
-changes in functional capacity of muscle--fast twitch becomes more oxidative
What types of athletes tend to have more slow twitch muscle fibers?
-distance, endurance athletes
What types of athletes tend to have more fast twitch muscle fibers?
Which muscle fibers are always recruited first?
What type of movement will Type I fibers predominate during?
What type of movement will Type IIa fibers predominate during?
-a combination of endurance and speed/power movement
What type of movement will Type IIx fibers predominate during?
Which muscle fibers fatigue the most easily?
-fast twitch, Type IIx
Which muscle fibers contain the greatest amount of phosphocreatine?
-Intermediate, Type IIa
-Fast, Type IIx
Which muscle fibers contain the greatest amount of glycogen?
-Intermediate, Type IIa
-Fast Type IIx
Which muscle fibers contain the greatest amount of triglycerides?
-Slow twitch, Type I
If slow twitch muscle fibers are recruited first, what determines if fast twitch fibers are recruited?
-extend exercise duration
Which muscle fibers are recruited for all out power performances?
-Fast Twitch, Type IIx
Do males or females typically have more slow twitch muscle fibers?
-there is a similar muscle fiber distribution
Which muscle fibers tend to atrophy most with aging?
What is hypertrophy?
-increase in the size of muscle fibers
What is hyperplasia?
-increase in the number of muscle fibers
What muscle fibers hypertrophy most with resistance training?
What are some potential problems with fiber type screening for sport performance?
-fiber type is not fixed until puberty
-risks with biopsies
-interpretation and recommendation
-personal preference for sports
What factors affect your ability to gain strength?
What happens to connective tissue with resistance training?
-thickens and strengthens connective tissue wrap
Name 4 genetic factors you can't change with training.
-muscle length/tendon attachment ratio
In general, who is stronger-males or females? Why?
-have greater amount of muscle mass, able to produce more force/larger cross-sectional area
What accounts for much of the strength gains seen in women?
-CNS adaptations: they are able to become stronger without significant increase in muscle size
How does resistance training affect total body weight?
-little or no change
How does resistance training affect body fat?
How does resistance training affect fat free mass?
Does hypertrophy or hyperplasia occur during resistance training?
Why is hypertrophy caused by?
-size and # of myofibrils per muscle fiber
-amount of contractile proteins
-strength of connective tissue, tendons, and ligaments
Do slow or fast twitch muscle fibers tend to respond more to resistance training?
What is necessary to activate fast twitch fibers?
-high enough force
What happens during the early, learning phase of strength training?
-recruitment of more motor units
-increased synchronization of motor unit firing
-lowered neural inhibitory reflexes
What accounts for most of the strength gains early in a program?
How would you apply the principle of progressive overload to resistance training?
-lift weights greater than "normally encountered"
-begin with resistance you can lift target # of times, when you can lift 2-3 more than that, increase load by 5%
What happens to an underloaded muscle?
-it doesn't get stronger
Apply the principle of reversibility to resistance training.
-lose muscular strength at a slower rate than muscular endurance
Define muscular endurance.
-the ability to lift a submaximal load repeatedly or sustain a contraction for an extended period of time
Define muscular strength.
-the maximal weight an individual can lift just once
How would you measure muscular strength?
1 RM testing, the amount of weight you can lift just once
How would you measure muscular endurance?
-timed sit ups, push ups
-back extension hold
Define isometric training.
-tension develops and force is exerted, but there is no change in the length of the muscle
What are the pros of isometric training?
What are the cons of isometric training?
-only get stronger at joint angle of training
-significantly increased BP
Define isokinetic training.
-the muscle shortens at a constant speed and the tension developed by the muscle is maximal over the full range of motion
What are the pros of isokinetic training?
-large strength gains in small amounts of time
-little/no muscular soreness
What are the cons of isokinetic training?
-need to be able to externally control speed of movement with expensive equipment
When is isokinetic training used?
-rehab of athletes after injury
Define isotonic training.
-the muscle shortens or lengthens with varying tension while resisting a constant load
What is an example of isotonic training?
-most machine training
What is a concentric contraction?
-the muscle shortens
What is an eccentric contraction?
-the muscle lengthens
What are the ACSM guidelines for resistance training?
1 set of 8-12 reps of major muscle groups twice/week
Should everyone follow the ACSM guidelines for resistance training? Why or why not?
-no, because they are minimums
-only an untrained individual would have significant gains
Which is better-one or three sets of reps?
-more work will produce more gains
what are some considerations when designing a training program?
What is the optimal number of sets and reps for strength?
3 sets, 6 reps
-increase weight when you can do 8 reps
What is the optimal number of sets and reps for endurance?
4-6 sets, 18-20 reps
What is a suggested program for an untrained individual?
4 sets @ 60% 1RM (about 12 reps) 3 days/week
What is a suggested program for a trained individual?
4 sets at 80% 1RM (about 8 reps) 2 days/week
What is a suggested program for an athlete?
8 sets at 85% 1RM (about 6 reps) 2 days/week
In terms of weight and reps, what should you focus on if you are training for strength?
In terms of weight and reps, what should you focus on if you are training for endurance?
How much of 1RM is a weight that you can lift only 8 times?
How much of 1RM is a weight than you can lift only 15 times?
What is thought to be the cause of acute muscular soreness?
-ischemia, the lack of blood flow
What is thought to be the cause of delayed onset muscular soreness?
-tearing of tissue
-damage to connective tissue
What are the recommendations for training when experiencing muscular soreness?
-stretch and light workout to recover
-possibly add vitamin C
What is the purpose of a minimum of 24 hours recovery between training sessions?
-muscle healing and resynthesis
What are the benefits of a short exercise recovery time?
-increased muscular endurance and ability to deal with and remove lactate
What are the benefits of an extended recovery time?
-improved strength and power because training occurs at or near maximal resistance
-ATP-PC recovers completely
If you want to make sure you have allowed for a complete recovery of the ATP-PC system, how long do you need to rest?
How do you select exercises for a workout program?
evaluate desired performance:
-what energy systems
-what movement patterns
what specific muscles/groups
What is a superset? Give an example.
-alternate between exercises with no rest period
-ex. upper/lower body, opposing muscle groups, push-pull, etc
While training for muscular endurance, how much recovery should be between sets?
When training for hypertrophy, how much recovery should be between sets?
1 to 2 minutes
When training for muscular strength, how much recovery should be between sets?
3 to 5 minutes
When training for power, how much recovery should be between sets?
When sequencing your exercises, what muscle order should the go in?
-large to small
What is a mesomorph body type?
-fast twitch, able to put on muscle
What is an ectomorph body type?
-linear, don't put on big muscles
What is an endomorph body type?
-round, hour-glass shape
In terms of body type, what are most people?
What happens to muscle strength with aging?
-there is a 30% decrease in muscle strength between 20 and 75 years
-most strength decline after 50+
-most rapid decline after 80 years
Is muscle strength decline with aging inevitable?
-to an extent, with strength training you can slow the process
What is resting metabolic rate?
-how many calories you are burning per minute
-accounts for 60-75% of daily total caloric expenditure
What is the thermic effect of feeding/eating?
-small increase in metabolic rate associated with digestion
-accounts for about 10% of daily total caloric expenditure
What is the thermic effect of activity?
-energy expended above resting rate to accomplish a given task
-accounts for variable amount of total caloric expenditure
Which of the metabolism variables do you have the greatest control over?
-thermic effect of activity
What is maximal volitional fatigue (MVF)?
-when you cannot perform one more rep without a break in form
How is MVF different from 1RM?
-1RM is based on the heaviest of one set you can do
-MVF is based on how many reps you can do without stopping
Will callisthenic type training lead to gains in strength?
-yes, they provide sufficient overload to improve and maintain muscular strength and endurance
How would you overload callisthenic training?
What is the 2 for 2 rule?
-if you can do 2 more reps than the goal in final set for 2 consecutive training sessions, increase the load in all sets in the next training session
What is the purpose of periodization?
-help avoid staleness, boredom, and plateaus
-used to enhance performance for a specific competition
What is the most common usage of periodization?
-competitive sports, to peak performance
When should multiple joint exercises be performed?
-early in the workout to get greatest gains
How should exercises be prioritized during a workout?
-exercises with the greatest importance should be performed earliest in the session to minimize fatigue and maximize gains
How can joint angle be used to vary overload?
-by changing the exercise for the same muscle group
In terms of specificity, how should joint angle be trained?
-close to the angle you will perform
What is the ideal speed of movement during resistance training?
-untrained 2:4 or 1:2 concentric:eccentric
-slow to moderate
How does controlling movement speed enhance strength gains?
-reduces momentum, which allows for consistent application of force
What are some benefits of controlling movement speed during resistance training?
-less tissue trauma=faster recovery
-reduction to injury potential
What is the recommended range of motion for most resistance training exercises? When does this vary?
-sport specific, injury
What is periodization?
-in order to continue improving muscular fitness, the two variables that are most important to change are volume and intensity
What will a linear periodization scheme look like?
-begin with high volume and low intensity, over time, the volume will decrease and the intensity will increase
What does an undulating periodization scheme look like?
-light, moderate, and heavy loads are alternated
Describe "functional" training and how it differs from traditional training.
-trains in terms of whole movements and specifically for activities of daily life and sport
-trains in all 3 planes, traditional typically trains in only the sagittal plane
What is the planar approach to training?
-choose movements that involve major, multi-planar joints
-train joints in all available planes
-use functional actions that require balance and stability
How can functional ideas be incorporated into training?
-use actions that require balance and stabilization
-choose activities that require you to slow, stop, or change direction
-connect directly to target or goal activities
How can functional ideas be mixed up?
-add challenge by changing body angles, vision direction, cervical rotation, and adjusting body weight
What are the "deep" core muscles?
What is the purpose of the "deep" core muscles?
-provide segmental stability to the spine
When does segmental instability occur in the spine?
-when local muscles are dysfunctional
What does functional abdominal training focus on?
-stability and mobility
How can you learn to activate the transverse abdomonis?
-"don't move me" drill
-"dead bug" progression
-4 point stance
In terms of specificity, what should a dynamic warm up include?
-joint specific preparation
What should a dynamic warm up for an upcoming movement workout look like?
-gradually increase ROM and acceleration and deceleration
-include crossover patterns and directional changes
What should a dynamic warm up for an upcoming strength workout look like?
-open tight areas, plan to strengthen weak/inhibited areas
-load/unload foot/ankle, hips, T-spine
-body/light weight multi-planar exercises
What movements occur in the sagittal plane?
-forward and backward
-through the midline
-ex. biceps curl, forward lunge
What movements occur in the frontal plane?
-side to side
-adduction and abduction
-ex. jumping jacks
What movements occur in the transverse plane?
-horizontal abduction or adduction
-ex. bench press, cable wood chop
What are the global muscles of the core?
What is the key abdominal muscle for segmental stability?
-the transverse abdominis
-it activates the multifidus
How would you define flexibility?
ability to move:
-freely in every direction
-through a full and normal range of motion
What is the difference between static and dynamic flexibility?
-in static flexibility, movement or speed is not a factor
What is static flexibility?
-the range of motion around a joint or joints
-ex. doing the splits
What is dynamic flexibility?
-range of motion during physical performance
-ex. back flip
What factors limit flexibility?
-joint capsule (the most)
-muscle and fascia
-tendon and ligaments
What happens to flexibility as you get older?
-decreases, due to change in diameter and hydration of collagen matrix
Why are females more flexible than males?
-laxer tendons and ligaments
How does muscularity affect flexibility?
-it does not
What is a stretch weakness?
-postural muscles remain in prolonged period of stretch or joints are stretched repeatedly with poor technique
How does stretch weakness increase your risk of injury?
Define/describe neutral posture in both sitting and standing.
-maintaining the 3 natural curves of the spine
Why is maintaining a neutral spine important during sitting a standing?
-to avoid stretch weakness
What is cumulative trauma?
-many injuries result from repeated movements or static postures
-ex. hurting your back when you bend over to pick something up
What is an elastic stretch?
-tissue elongation that recovers when tension is removed
What part of connective tissue is most likely affected by an elastic stretch?
What is a plastic stretch?
-elongation in which the tissue deformation remains even after the force is removed
What part of connective tissue is most likely affected by a plastic stretch?
-tendons and ligaments
What type of stretching will bring about mainly elastic changes?
What type of stretching will bring about mainly plastic changes?
What are the ACSM guidelines for flexibility training?
-4 repetitions for all major muscle groups
-static or dynamic
How does tissue temperature affect flexibility?
-reduces muscle fiber viscosity
-increases muscle elasticity
-diminishes muscle stiffness
What are the implications for when to stretch to maximize gains?
-best to stretch post workout due to increased temperature
Describe the stretch reflex.
-when force is applied fast or at high intensity, the muscle spindle and nerve fiber respond by sending a signal through the CNS to contract
-ex. knee jerk reflex
How does reciprocal inhibition work during the stretch reflex?
-the muscle opposing the contracting muscle is relaxed and prevented from contracting
What happens when an extreme stretch/force is applied to a muscle?
-the muscle spindle is stretched
What is the automatic response to a stretch/force applied to a muscle? How can you overcome this reflex response?
-low force helps the muscle spindle adapt to the lengthened position--static stretching
What is ballistic stretching?
-high force, short duration
What is PNF stretching?
What is static stretching?
-low force, long duration
What is active isolated stretching?
-active contraction of opposing muscle group and movement through full range of motion
-over pressure at the end range
What is passive stretching?
-the client is relaxed and in neutral posture, trainer applies the gentle stretch/force
What are the benefits of stretching pre-activity?
-decrease tissue stiffness
What are the risks of stretching pre-activity?
-decrease maximal voluntary contraction
Which type of change do you typically want with stretching pre-activity?
What are the benefits of stretching post-activity?
-less resistance due to increased temp
-return to resting length
-removal of unwanted waste products
Which type of change do you typically want during post-activity stretching?
What causes excessive flexibility?
-usually overstretched ligaments (from injury or performance)
What are the risks of hyper-flexibility?
-may decrease stability and increase risk of injury to joint structures
What is the goal of a healthy back?
-need stability with mobility
-learn to activate the transverse abdominis
What are the goals to have a healthy back?
-improve posture during and outside exercise sessions
-correct muscle imbalance
-groove correct movement mechanics
What factors affect flexibility?
-elasticity of connective tissue within muscles
-ability of opposing muscle group to relax and coordinate with agonist
What are the benefits of flexibility?
-increased physical efficiency and performance
-decreased risk of injury
-increased blood supply and nutrients to structures
-improved health of synovial fluid and joint lubrication
What is the goal of flexibility?
-to optimize neuromuscular performance
How does stretching work?
-applying force to decrease tissue stiffness-->elongates that musculotendinous unit and increases the available range of motion
In terms of permanence, what is an elastic stretch?
In terms of permanence, what is a plastic stretch?
When do increased elastic changes occur?
-during a dynamic warm up
What do muscle spindles respond to?
-velocity and intensity of the stretch
What kind of stretching should be done pre-activity?
What kind of stretching should be done post-activity?
What is the major issue with ballistic stretching?
-control of movement and range of motion
How is PNF stretching done?
-isometric contraction against maximum resistance at the end point of range of motion for about 6 seconds
-followed by a slow, passive stretch to the point of limitation about 10 seconds
What are the benefits of PNF stretching?
-may allow for a greater reflex inhibition, resulting in a greater stretch
What are the risks of PNF stretching?
-may be riskier and more complicated
Sets with similar terms
Ch. 4 Muscular Strength and Endurance
Training and Conditioning Techniques
Training and Conditioning Techniques
HESF 237 final
Other sets by this creator
CH305 Exam 2
HED370K Exam 1
HED 329K Test 2
TD 301 Test 1
Other Quizlet sets
MKTG 404 CH 13-18 Exam