90 terms

Praxis II: PLT


Terms in this set (...)

John Dewey
American; late 1800s- early 1900s; Progressive education; schools should reflect needs of society, educate whole child, well rounded; intro of arts in education; democracy - primary ethical value, to be good citizens students should be encouraged to explore and inquire, solve problems, and critical thinking, work cooperatively; participate in decisions that affect their learning; challenged traditional methods of rote learning and authoritative teaching
Maria Montessori
Italy, India and US; early 1900s; emphasized developmental hands-on learning; students from birth to 18 years; child-centered; students set pace; equipment of increasing complexity to complement students' interests and encourage development; teacher guides students' first attempts, to avoid wasted effort or bad habits
Jerome Bruner
mid to late 1900s; contributed to education and curriculum theory; father of Discovery Learning; learners create and think as they inquire and experience events; focus on active process of constructing knowledge and understanding through authentic experiences, rather than ability to output info; problem-solving situations, draw on existing knowledge/past experience, learn new relationships and truths through discovering, exploring, experimenting, inquiring, wrestling with issues, manipulating objects; more likely to remember new concepts/knowledge; any child at any stage of development can learn any subject; inspired spiral curriculum
three main learning theories
behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism (recently a 4th: connectivism) - makes assumptions about how people learn
new learning theory that has recently emerged, result of advances in media and technology; consistent with recent brain research; assumes learners actively connect special sets of info; connections that help us learn, and learner's ability to merge them, more imporant than current state of knowing; based on idea that new info is continually acquired and changed; stored in multiple locations in a network throughout the brain; more connections, more likely to remember; learners must distinguish which info is valuable and which isn't; more important to know how to learn by connecting and evaluating info from multiple sources than it is to bank knowledge for future use; knowledge quickly becomes outdated and must be revised
assumes learners are passive; start as clean slate and learn by responding to stimuli in environment; learning and behavior shaped by student response to pos and neg reinforcements; learning is recognized as change in student's behavior; Skinner and Pavolov; early work done with animals; dominant theory until 1960s
1960s took over as more popular learning paradigm; learners as problem-solvers, able to think for themselves; brains as computers that process, organize, and use info and produce certain outcomes; to teach, need to investigate phenomena such as memory, thinking, what it means to know something; credit learning as a change in students' schemata (mental constructions); must participate in learning by thinking; changes in behavior are important to observe b/c they indicate the cognitive learning happening in mind
became popular in 1980s/1990s; assumes learners build/construct knowledge and personal understanding based on experiences coupled with negotiation of meanings; social constructivism presumes this happens w/in social contexts - encourage students to test hypotheses and talk w/others about how they interpret events and concepts; "grow" knowledge rather than acquire it; learners are active; students construct own interpretations of events, concepts, ideas; often misapplied in classrooms, doesn't mean teachers should never directly teach; assumes learners use their previous knowledge to construct new understandings regardless of how they are taught; Piaget and Vygotsky credited with planting seeds of constructivism; Bruner's later work drew attention to this theory
Erik Erikson
psychological theory of human personality development; 8 stages of development (first five, school-age); 1 - trust vs mistrust (birth to 1 year) infants depend on parents for every need; 2 - autonomy vs shame and doubt (2-3 years) toddlers gain control and begin to explore; 3 - initiative vs guilt (4-6 years old) children initiate actions and attempt to master their world; 4 - industry vs inferiority (7-11 years old) children produce works and develop self-confidence with successes; 5 - identity vs role confusion (12-19 years old) adolescents concerned with who they are and how they appear to others
Bowlby and Ainsworth
attachment; emotional bond between people; secure attachment lets you feel safe to explore the world; focus on relationships has implications for childcare and education
B.F. Skinner
behaviorist; focused on ways the environment and interactions influence behavior and development; development is reaction to stimuli and reinforcemnts such as rewards and punishments
Jean Piaget
theory of cognitive developement; 1970s and 1980s; 4 periods of growth: 1 - Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years) infants move from instinctual/reflective actions to beginnings of developing symbolic thoughts; 2 - preoperational (2-7 years) children demonstrate egocentrism; 3 - concrete operational (7-11 years) children can use logic to process seriation, classification and conservation; 4 - formal operational (11-adult) adolescents and adults move beyond concrete into abstract thinking/reasoning; believed developmental growth causes learning to happen
Lev Vygotsky
learning comes first and causes children to develop; views learning as social process; supportive adults and peers help scaffold learning; zone of proximal development
Lawrence Kohlberg
Moral reasoning is the route of ethical behavior; 6 levels of moral development: lower level, children judge whether something is moral by immediate consequences; medial level, adolescents judge morality of actions based on how society views them; higher levels, one's own perspective on what is right/wrong takes precedence of that of society
Zone of Proximal Development
point of learning b/w what student can do independently and what he or she can do w/help
Learning Domains
cognitive, affective, psychomotor, and interpersonal functions; presenting and assessing through multiple modes will increase probability that students will reach high levels of learning
cognitive domain
centers on intellectual skills; Bloom's Taxonomy; methods to use: provide graphic organizers, class notes, additional examples, self-check quizzes; collaborative assignments will help them engage in problem-solving as they synthesize and evaluate
Bloom's Taxonomy
progressivley complex levels of cognitive skills: knowledge (recall info), comprehension (make meaning, understand things), application (use concept in new situation), analysis (seperate concepts into parts to understand how organized, make inference, compare/contrast), synthesis (putting parts together to make new meanings), evaluation (make judgements)
affective domain
focus on attitudes, engagement, and motivation; stages: receiving (listening), responding (participating), valuing (being involved), organizing (advocating), characterizing (changing behavior or lifestyle); methods: provide opportunities for student success, set personal goals, offer support and meaningful feedback
psychomotor domain
demo accuracy and skill through motor activities such as lab, vocational, physical education courses and performing arts; levels of action (basic movement), coordination (synchronized movement), formation (body mvt), production (combine verbal and nonverbal mvt); address through: hands on demos, simulations, performances; helpful for intro to new content (when more expert they can learn from videos and pictures)
interpersonal domain
interactions among people or learners; seek and give info, propose ideas, help others build/support their ideas, exclude or involve others, offer differing opinions, negotiate, make compromises, lead others, summarize ideas; learn best in this mode by seeing models, being coached, and practicing
Learning Styles
students learn in different ways
Kolb's experiential learning theory
proposes that we learn from concrete experiences by actively participating, reflective observations by watching others, abstract conceptualizations by generating theories to explain experiences, and active experimentation by applying theories to solve problems; students benefit most when engage in all 4 modes and will develop strength in 1 or 2; convergers (someone good at applying new ideas and deductive reasoning); divergers (imaginative); assimilators (good at inductive reasoning and producing theoritical models); accommodators (actively engage in doing things rather than reading about them)
Fleming's VARK model
visual, auditory, reading/writing - preference, kinesthetic learning
Howard Gardner Multiple Intelligences
8 types: linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal (people smart), intrapersonal (self smart), naturalist; wanted schools to equally value all types of intelligences; teachers should present lessons in variety of ways to reach students of other intelligences
Gender differences
boys and girls practice different learning strategies; tend to perform better in math or reading; girls better at memorization, planning, organizing, reflecting on own learning
group or community that shares common experiences, understandings, and traditions
Cultural differences
verbal and nonverbal communication; learning style preferences; rules for adult-child relationships/discourse; greetings
special needs; cognitive, physical, social, or emotional;
ADA - Americans w/disabilities act
prohibits discrimination based on disability
IDEA - Individuals w/disabilities education act
free and appropriate public ed, early intervention, and related services for all students
students with special needs placed in same classroom as children w/out disabilities
students w/special needs spend all or some of their days in a reg ed classroom
least restrictive environment
educational setting that allows students w/special needs to learn to the best of their ability w/least number of restrictions present
IEP - Individualized Education Plan
ed plan designed and updated annually for kids with special needs; written and approved by educators and family; must include description of present functioning, measurable goals, learning objectives, how they'll be evaluated, description and duration of services provided, and placement
Section 504 of Rehabilitation Services Act
prohibits discrimination against students with special needs who don't meet requirement of definition stipulated by IDEA; no discriminiation in after-school programs, care, sports not covered by IDEA; must identify/evaluate students and write a 504 plan - similar but not as lengthy as IEP
due process
reporting procedure that protects the rights of students with special needs by granting families and schools the right to impartial hearing to review placement and planning for student; rights are assured and outlined in IDEA
How to accomodate diversity
differentiated instruction, alternative assessments, testing modifications
differentiated instruction
teacher maximizes students' learning by meeting each where he/she is academically, emotionally, physically, and helping move to higher level of understanding; student-centered; vary teaching methods, materials, strategies, physical setting or design, assessment style, lessons
alternative assessments (aka authentic assessments)
activities or tasks designed to equitably demo students' learning in nontraditional ways; emphasize strengths rather than weaknesses; different in design and structure; may be graded differently; ex: demos, performances
Testing modifications
minimize effects of students' disability in testing situations by allowing support or assistance; not meant to compensate for students' lack of understanding or skill; not a substitute for ability or knowledge; ex: extended time, read aloud, in different setting
internal or external motivation
ex: study for praxis to prep for teaching (internal) for good score (external)
internal motivation
caused by students' determination to achieve a self-set goal; more effective over time
external motivation
caused by receiving favorable compensation: stickers, good grades, extra recess time
attribute theory
we are motivated by how we perceive our ability, luck, effort, and difficulty of the task; these attributes are seen as either controlled internally by the person or externally by others; relates to cognitive approach to learning
"I'm pretty smart and I value that about myself"
"I can do this"
expectancy theory
another cognitive approach; if I expect I can be successful at a task, I see a connection b/w the task and success, and I value that success; all factors present for high level of motivation
Abraham Maslow
humanistic approach; hierarchy of needs; basic needs must be met before moving to higher level; physiological (hungry, thirsty, phsyically uncomfortable); safety; belongingness (feel accepted/loved by others); esteem (feel incompetent and unrecognized)... when these 4 levels met you can move on to next four levels: cognitive level, aesthetic level, self-actualization/self-fulfillment, and self-transcendence
to help motivate students intrinsically
teachers must believe the work is important and meaningful and portray belief to students; believe and express that all students can achieve challenging yet reasonable expectations; T and Ss make goals together so students feel empowered; T clearly explain reasons why it's valuable; lessons should be authentically related to real-life skills and expectations; vary activites and aim to meet all students' needs/learning styles; Ss should be given choices; materials and resources available to meet all Ss' reading and skill needs; constructive feedback along the way; provoke Ss' curiosity; present activities in interesting contexts
Classroom Management "tricks of the trade"
establish daily routines; schedule posted, announce any changes each morning; establish classroom rules, best if composed with students, consistent, discuss rationale of each, post for all to see, refer to them often; positive guidance, "catch" them being good; be kind and never sarcastic; model love of learning; keep accurate records; communicate with students and their families; respond to student behaviors immediately; provide safe environment for all; space for them to be away from others sometimes; plan management into lessons
deductive reasoning
if premises are true the conclusion must be true; use premises to build to conclusion
inductive reasoning
use premises to support conclusion
cooperative learning
small groups of students at various levels interacting to help each other learn; learn about the subject AND how to work with others; come to a consensus, 1 final idea or project
direct instruction
teacher models and explains
student-centered models
highlights students needs, interests, skills, learning styles; teacher as facilitator; student voices dominate classroom
discovery learning and inquiry
Ss follow their interests and questions w/in a topic; Ss allowed space to solve problems and learn from past experiences
interdisciplinary instruction
integrating content areas; themes or unit approach; provide full contextualized picture of issue or topic
concept mapping
students construct a visual representation of a concept or topic that breaks down and organizes the concepts that compose a topic; illustrates how ideas are connected w/in topic
play (as an instructional strategy)
many benefits; world of pretend play helps kids make clarifications, explore and socialize
learning centers
so Ss can participate in several small-group learning experiences in a row
small-group lessons
Ts interact closely with a few Ss; observe and assess Ss' needs closely and provide individual help immediately; Ss learn from each other by listening/watching their interactions
Service learning projects
integrate authentic community service with instruction and learning; Ss learn about civic responsibility as work w/local or internat'l communities; reflect on their role in community/world
learning objective
learning outcome, or end product of the lesson; should include cognitive, affective, speech and language, and psychomotor goals
emergent curriculum
based on Ss' and T's interests; starts w/observation, brainstorming, and flexibility; T intro experiences or materials to get Ss interested in general topic; or T can hear Ss talking about a topic and use as the base for instruction; brainstorming and webbing used as road map to decide what to learn about the topic
Antibias curriculum
aims to eliminate bias by helping Ss form a solid understanding of the issues/problems of society; helps students develop understanding of social justice
Ss watch and listen as a T or another more-knowledgable person do something; thinking aloud
guided practice
Ss work towards being able to perform task independently; T asks guiding questions and provides scaffolded instruction
activating prior knowledge
T helps Ss think about other experiences they've had: books they read, places they visited, related to topic; brings in relevant vocab and concepts; connect to what they know
summative assessments
given at end of unit to determine what Ss learned
formative assessments
diagnositic, use to see what S currently knows and what they have to learn; inform teacher what to teach or reteach
formal assessments
traditional paper-and-pencil; grade based on how well student does
informal assessments
don't usually count towards grade; checklists, journals, self-eval, observations
norm-referenced assessment
compare student to how other Ss did on test (think: IQ test)
criterion-referenced assessment
don't compare Ss; compares S performance against established criterion, if S can do something (think: driver's test)
holistic scoring
S gets one score for performance on the overall assignment/project
analytic scoring
analyzes how Ss do on the parts of an assignment, then final grade results from those separate grades (think: rubric)
reflective practitioner
looks at his/her practice critically and continuously asks him/herself: How can I do this better? How can I improve Ss' learning?
Social Learning Theory; people learn from each other via observation, imitation, and modeling; called the bridge b/w behaviorist and cognitive theories
classical conditioning
behaviorism; Pavlov; put neutral signal before a reflex
operant conditioning
behaviorism; Skinner; reinforce/punish after an action; voluntary behavior
late 1800s-early 1900s; his work led to development of operant conditioning w/in behaviorism; learning from consequences of behavior; studied in animals; "law of effect" - behavior followed by pleasant consequences is likely to be repeated
father of Behaviorism
Information processing
3 components: sensory memory, working memory, and long-term memory
reciprocal determinism
Bandura; behavior both influences and is influenced by personal factors and social environment
vicarious learning
Bandura; learning by watching others perform behavior OR by watching others be taught - video or live
cloze procedures
informal tool to assess S reading comprehension; T takes passage and replaces words with blanks, S fills in blanks using syntax and semantic knowledge
learning contracts
agreement b/w T and S; makes S an active participant; what will be learned and how, resources, how assessed
computer mediated instruction
computer/technology to support instruction
collaborative learning
like cooperative but come out with individual ideas; doesn't have to be a consensus