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Pathophysiology: Chapter 05 - Respiratory Function
Terms in this set (80)
Phase of tuberculosis that occurs when the primary infection can no longer be controlled. During this phase, tuberculosis can spread throughout the lungs and to other organs.
An inflammation of the tracheobronchial tree or large bronchi. This inflammation is most commonly caused by a wide range of viruses. The airways become inflamed and narrowed due to the results of the inflammatory process.
Acute lung injury (ALI)
A slightly less severe form of acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
A sudden failure of the respiratory system often occurring from fluid accumulation in the alveoli. ARDS has many other names, such as shock lung, wet lung, and stiff lung.
Acute respiratory failure (ARF)
A serious, life-threatening condition that can be the result of many pulmonary disorders. The oxygen levels become dangerously low, or carbon dioxide levels become dangerously high, and the low oxygen levels are unable to meet the body's metabolic needs.
A hollow, saclike structure that is the final branching of the respiratory tree and acts as the primary gas exchange unit of the lung.
Type of pneumonia that frequently occurs when the gag reflex is impaired because of a brain injury or anesthesia. Aspiration pneumonia can also occur because of impaired lower esophageal sphincter closure secondary to nasogastric tube placement or disease (e.g., gastroesophageal reflux disease).
A chronic pulmonary disease that produces intermittent, reversible airway obstruction. It is characterized by acute airway inflammation, bronchoconstriction, bronchospasm, bronchiole edema, and mucus production. Asthma is the most common chronic illness in children.
Incomplete alveolar expansion or collapse of the alveoli. It occurs when the walls of the alveoli stick together.
A form of pneumonia that is more severe than viral pneumonia and can result from viral pneumonia.
Nickname given to those patients with chronic bronchitis, who are unable to increase ventilator effort to maintain adequate gas exchange. These patients eventually develop cyanosis and edema.
Part of the lung that controls airflow.
A common viral infection of the bronchioles most frequently caused by the respiratory syncytial virus. The infection most often occurs in children younger than 1 year of age, and incidence increases in the fall and winter months.
The most frequent type of pneumonia. It is generally a patchy pneumonia throughout several lobes.
Large tube leading from the trachea to the lungs that carries air to and from the lungs.
An obstructive respiratory disorder characterized by inflammation of the bronchi, a productive cough, and excessive mucus production. Chronic bronchitis differs from acute bronchitis in that the chronic type is not necessarily caused by an infection, and symptoms persist longer.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
A group of chronic respiratory disorders characterized by irreversible, progressive tissue degeneration and airway obstruction.
Organelle that moves in a wavelike motion to propel mucus and trapped particles upward to the mouth where they can be expectorated.
Pneumonia that is acquired outside the hospital or healthcare setting.
A common inherited respiratory disorder that presents at birth. This life-threatening condition causes severe lung damage and nutrition deficits.
A dome-shaped muscle that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities and aids in respiration.
A type of asthma that is frequently caused by aspirin and can be fatal. Reactions can be delayed up to 12 hours after drug ingestion.
An obstructive respiratory disorder that results in the destruction of the alveolar walls leading to large, permanently inflated alveoli.
Part of the respiratory system that closes the larynx when food is swallowed.
A life-threatening inflammation of the epiglottis, the protective cartilage lid covering the trachea opening.
Common type of asthma that usually occurs 10-15 minutes after activity ends. Symptoms can linger for an hour with exercise-induced asthma.
Exhalation; one of the two phases of breathing.
Expiratory reserve volume
The amount of air beyond tidal volume that can be exhaled forcefully, which is beyond the normal passive exhalation.
A condition caused by increased immunoglobulin E synthesis and airway inflammation, resulting in mast cell destruction and inflammatory mediator release. Extrinsic triggers include allergens such as food, pollen, dust, and medications. This type of asthma usually presents in childhood or adolescence.
Forced expiratory volume in 1 second
The amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled from the lungs in the first second of a forced exhalation.
Forced vital capacity
The amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled from the lungs after a forced inspiration.
The common cold, a viral upper respiratory infection. The most frequent culprit is the rhinovirus, but it can be caused by many viruses.
A viral infection that may affect the upper and lower respiratory tract. There are three strains: A, B, and C. The virus is highly adaptive and constantly mutates, preventing the development of any long-term immune defense.
Inhalation. One of the two phases of breathing. Inspiration is an active neural process that begins with nerve impulses traveling from the brain to the diaphragm.
Inspiratory reserve volume
The amount of air beyond the tidal volume that can be taken in with the deepest inhalation.
A type of pneumonia that occurs in the areas between the alveoli. Interstitial pneumonia is routinely caused by viruses (e.g., influenza type A and B) or by uncommon bacteria (e.g., Legionella). Also called atypical pneumonia.
Type of asthma that usually presents after age 35 and is not an allergic reaction. Intrinsic triggers include upper respiratory infections, air pollution, emotional stress, smoking, exercise, and cold exposure.
An inflammation of the larynx that is usually a result of an infection, increased upper respiratory exudate, or overuse. With laryngitis, the vocal cords become irritated and edematous because of the inflammatory process. This inflammation distorts sounds, leading to hoarseness and in some cases making the voice undetectable.
A common viral infection in children 1-2 years of age. Older children and adults may also contract it. It usually begins as an upper respiratory infection with nasal congestion and cough. The larynx and surrounding area swell, leading to airway narrowing and obstruction. This swelling can lead to respiratory failure. Also called croup.
The voice box. The larynx is made of cartilage and plays a central role in swallowing and talking.
A specific type of pneumonia that is caused by Legionella pneumophila. The bacteria thrive in warm, moist environments, particularly air-conditioning systems and spas. Legionnaires' disease is not contagious. Most people acquire this type of pneumonia from inhaling the bacteria as they are spread by an air-conditioning system or spa.
Type of pneumonia that is confined to a single lobe in the lung and is described by that affected lobe (e.g., right upper lobe).
Cancer of the lung. The third most common neoplasm, which can arise as either a primary or secondary tumor.
Middle East respiratory syndrome
An emerging illness caused by a coronavirus family. It is currently isolated to four countries in the Arabian Peninsula.
Minute respiratory volume
The amount of air inhaled and exhaled in 1 minute. It is determined by the tidal volume multiplied by the respirations per minute.
A thick, sticky substance produced by the goblet cells in the epithelial lining of the nose, trachea, and bronchi.I
A common type of pneumonia that usually affects people younger than 40 years of age.
Type of asthma that usually occurs between 3:00 and 7:00 a.m. and is thought to be related to circadian rhythms. At night, cortisol and epinephrine levels decrease, while histamine levels increase.
An aggressive type of lung cancer; the most common type of malignant lung cancer. It has several subgroups—squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and bronchioalveolar carcinoma. It is often referred to as bronchogenic carcinoma.
Pneumonia that develops more than 48 hours after a hospital admission.
A type of asthma that is caused by a reaction to substances encountered at work. Symptoms develop over time, worsening with each exposure and improving when one is away from work.
The process of delivering oxygen and nutrients with arterial blood to tissue.
Passageway that connects the oral and nasal cavities to the larynx.
Nickname given to patients with emphysema, who often hyperventilate, giving a pink appearance to their skin.
The accumulation of excess fluid in the pleural cavity that can compress the lungs and limit their expansion during inhalation.
Inflammation of the pleural membranes, which leads to swollen and irregular tissue. This inflammation is often associated with pneumonia and creates friction in the pleural membranes.
Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia
A specific type of pneumonia that is caused by a yeast like fungus, Pneumocystis jiroveci. It occurs as an opportunistic infection and can be fatal to immunocompromised individuals (e.g., children or those with AIDS or cancer).
An inflammatory process caused by numerous infectious agents (e.g., bacteria, viruses, and fungi) and injurious agents or events (e.g., aspiration and smoke). Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for 75% of all cases of pneumonia.
Air in the pleural cavity. The presence of atmospheric air in the pleural cavity and the separation to pleural membranes can lead to atelectasis. The pressure can cause a partial or complete collapse of a lung.
Primary TB infection
One of two stages of tuberculosis pathogenesis. In this stage, infection occurs when the bacillus first enters the body.
Volume of air left in the lungs after maximum exhalation.
Secondary TB infection
A condition that occurs when the primary TB infection can no longer be controlled, such that the TB spreads throughout the lungs and other organs.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
A rapidly spreading respiratory illness that presents similarly to atypical pneumonia. Prevalence rates are higher in Asian countries. SARS is caused by a coronavirus, SARS-CoV. Transmission occurs through inhalation of respiratory droplets, close contact, or oral-fecal contact. SARS has high mortality and morbidity rates.
An inflammation of the sinus cavities, most often caused by a viral infection.
A type of lung cancer that occurs almost exclusively in heavy smokers and is less frequent than non-small-cell cancers. Also called oat-cell carcinoma.
Type of pneumothorax that develops when air enters the pleural cavity from an opening in the internal airways.
A life-threatening, prolonged asthma attack that does not respond to usual treatment.
A substance on the surface of the alveoli. Surfactant is a lipoprotein produced by alveoli cells and has a detergent-like quality. This watery substance produces surface tension on the alveoli, which enhances pulmonary compliance and prevents the alveoli from collapsing.
The most serious type of pneumothorax; it occurs when the pressure in the pleural space is greater than the atmospheric pressure. This increased pressure is due to trapped air in the pleural space or entering air from a positive-pressure mechanical ventilator.
The amount of air involved in one normal inhalation and exhalation.
The windpipe; it carries air from the oral and nasal cavities to the lungs.
Type of pneumothorax that is caused by any blunt or penetrating injury to the chest. These injuries can inadvertently occur during certain medical procedures.
A potentially serious infectious disease that is increasing globally after declining in previous decades.
Type A influenza
The most common type of influenza virus. It includes several subtypes, including H1N1. Type A influenza is usually responsible for the most serious epidemics and global pandemics.
Type B influenza
Type of influenza virus that can also cause regional epidemics, but the disease it produces is generally milder than that caused by type A influenza.
Type C influenza
Type of influenza virus that causes sporadic cases and minor, local outbreaks. Type C has never been connected with a large epidemic.
The transportation of air from the atmosphere to the lungs and out again.
Ventilation/perfusion ratio (VQ ratio)
A measurement used to assess the efficacy and adequacy of ventilation and perfusion. Also called VQ ratio.
A form of pneumonia that is usually mild and heals without intervention, but that can lead to a virulent bacterial pneumonia.
The sum of the tidal volume and reserves in the lungs.
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