Chapter 11: Sustaining Aquatic Biodiversity
Terms in this set (24)
3 general patterns of marine biodiversity
1. greatest-coral reefs
2. biodiversity is higher near coasts than in open sea
3. biodiversity is higher in the bottom region of ocean than surface b/c of a variety of habitats and food sources
Dredging Operation and Trawler Fish Boats
nets weighted down with heavy chains and steel plates over an oceans bottom to harvest few species of bottom fish/shellfish
- reduce coral reef habitats to rubble and kill creatures on bottom of ocean
Invasive Species (water hyacinth)
taken over large areas of lake, blocks sunlight, deprived fish and plankton of oxygen and reduce aquatic plant diversity
Asian Swamp Eel
resistant to water borne poisons- breathe air, move across dry land to invade new waterways, ditches, canals, marshes
Eutrophication of Lake Victoria
increased runoff from high human populations in nearby towns and farms= algae blooms
area of ocean needed to sustain the consumption of an average person , a nation of the world
concentration of particular aquatic species suitable for commercial harvesting
when it is no longer profitable to continue fishing affected species
gigantic nets, long lines of hooks attach to catch non target species
surrounds large schools of fish spotted by aircraft with a large net, net is then drawn tight. (tuna, mackerel, anchovies, herring)
funnel shaped net to drag the ocean bottom. shrimp cod flounder scallops. analogous to clear cutting forests, species not wanted by bycatch
places very long lines with thousands of baited hooks. (swordfish, tuna, sharks, halibut, cod) endangered sea turtles, pilot whales and dolphin
long expanses of net that hang down in water. traps turtles, seabirds, marine mammals.
International Whaling Commission
regulate the whaling industry by setting annual quotas to prevent over harvesting and commercial extinction.
only partially protected(some allow dredging, trawler fishing, economically harmful methods
set catch limits well below the maximum sustainable yield. improve monitoring and enforcement of regulations
Individual Transfer Rights
1. transfer ownership of public owned fisheries to private commercial fisheries
2. can squeeze out small fishing companies that do not have capital to squeeze ITR's
3. TAC's often too high to prevent over fishing.
drained, filled in, covered over swamps, wetlands, marshes to create rice fields and make land available for growing crops, cities and building roads.
current policy in which wetlands must have zero "net loss," which means some wetlands can be destroyed as long as equal amount is created or restored
parasitic organism that sucks the blood out of its host fish
Great Lakes invasive specie: clogs pipes, machinery; displaces native species, uses up resources
invasive, more tolerant clam which can invade more waters than zebra mussel
-invasive freshwater fish
-large size, rapid rate of reproduction
-brought here to reduce algae and catfish farms
Columbia River Disruption
-over fishing, pollution, dams, with drawl for irrigation disrupt services.
- generators of inexpensive hydroelectric power, supply areas with water for agriculture.
- damn interrupt cycle life of migratory fish.
- migrate to live then die when returned to streams