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Client Assessment - Unit XIV and XIII
Terms in this set (79)
a cavity containing puss and surrounded by inflamed tissue, formed as a result of suppuration in a localized infetion, characteristically caused by staphylococci but also caused by parasites and foreign substances.
a skin disease characterized by hyperpigmented, velvety thickening of the skin, common in the neck, axilla, and groin. There are benign and malignant forms.
benign fibrocystic disease
the presence of single or multiple cysts that are palpable in the breasts. The cysts are benign and fairly common, yet must be considered potentially malignant and observed carefully for growth or change. In most cases no treatment is required
breast self examination; a procedure in which a woman examines her breasts and their accessory structures for evidence of change that could indicate a malignant process. Usually performed 1 week to 10 days after the first day of the menstrual cycle.
small, abnormal indentations or depressions on the surface of a body or organ.
to release a substance or object.
an abnormal dilation of a duct by lipids and cellular debris. In a mammary duct the condition, which tends mainly to affect postmenopausal women, may be accompanied by inflammation and infiltration by plasma cells
distension or vascular congestion of body tissues, such as the swelling of breast tissue caused by an increased flow of blood and lymph before true lactation
a cleft or groove on the surface of an organ, often marking its division into parts, such as the lobes of a lung; a crack-like lesion of the skin, such as an anal fissure
a spontaneous flow of milk from the nipple; lactation not associated w/ childbirth or nursing
an abnormal enlargement of one or both breasts in males. Milk production may or may not be presesnt
a chronic suppurative and cicatricial disease of the apocrine gland-bearing areas, chiefly the axillae and anogenitial region caused by occlusion of the pores with secondary bacterial infection of apocrine sweat glands. Characterized by the development of one or more tender red abscesses that enlarge and break through the skin, yielding purulent or seropurulent drainage.
inflammation or infection of the breast
pain in the breast
when the nipple grown inwards instead of out.
a plaque with a definite margin found in the anogenital area and in the axilla. It is a rare malignant disease and is treated by surgical excision.
dimpling, pitting, and swelling, seen in skin that is considerably inflamed or that overlies inflammatory carcinoma of the breast.
having more than one breast
shortening; the act of drawing backward or the condition of being drawn back.
milk secreted from the breasts of some newborn infants; resolves without treatment 1-2 wks after birth.
a tumor of fibrous and glandular tissue (connective tissue); usually found in uterus and breast area.
having more than one nipple
exceeding the regular number
angle of Louis
an angle formed at the junction of the manubrium and the body of the sternum.
anterior axillary line (AAL)
a vertical line along anterior axillary fold
the angle beneath the the sternum. It is created by the costal cartilage that joins what are called the false ribs.This angle is created because these false ribs get shorter as they go down. Since they are connected by the descending costal cartilage which travels laterally and inferiorly from the sternum
sometimes referred to as the costal arch, is the medial margin formed by the false ribs -- specifically, from the seventh rib to the tenth rib.
inferior angle of scapula
the last angle (point) of scapula
intercostal space (ICS)
the space in between the ribs
the upper segment of the sternum.
midaxillary line (MAL)
a vertical line at midpoint between anterior and posterior axillary line
midclavicular line (MCL)
a vertical line from the middle of the clavicle
midsternal line (MSL)
a vertical line down the middle of the sternum
posterior axillary line (PAL)
a line along post axillary fold
line through the inferior angle of the scapula
also known as the Jugular Notch - is the central indention of the superior border of the manubirum.
Because the spinous process is visible through the skin, C7 (the 7th cervical vertebrae) can be used as a landmark for counting the vertebrae
forms the inferior end of the sternum. It articulates only with the sternal body and serves as an attachment point for some abdominal muscles.
is a term used to describe the rounded, barrel shape of the chest that can occur in people with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
an exaggeration or angulation of the posterior curve of the thoracic spine, giving rise to condition known as humpback, hunchback, or Potts Curvature.
Abnormal anterior convexity of the lumbar spine.
A protrusion of the chest over the sternum.
also called pigeon chest, is a deformity of the chest characterized by a protrusion of the sternum and ribs
a congenital deformity of the sternum which is depressed into the chest resulting in a "caved in" or "sunken in" appearance
the tip of the rib bones can enlarge creating a string of lumps (bow legs)
a lateral curvature of the spine
abnormal lung sounds heard when listening to the chest as the person breathes. These may be wheezing, crackles (rales), or stridor
temporary cessation of breathing, therefore, of the body's intake of oxygen and release of carbon dioxide.
A lung disease in which tightening of the air passages can provoke wheezing and difficulty breathing.
a collapsed or airless condition of the lungs
a chronic dilation of a bronchus or bronchi, usually in the lower portions of the lung, caused by the damaging effects of a long standing infection.
inflammation of the mucous membranes of the bronchial airways causing a persistent cough that produces considerably quantities of sputum.
a breathing pattern marked by a period of apnea lasting 10 to 60 seconds, followed by gradually increasing depth and frequency of respirations (hyperventilation)
the process of becoming solid. Solidification of the lungs is caused by pathological engorgement of the lung tissues as occurs in acute pneumonia.
an adventitious lung sound heard on auscultation of the chest, produced by air passing over retained airway secretions or the sudden opening of collapsed airways.
a crackling or rattling sound made by a part of the body.
The movement of the thoracic diaphragm during breathing. Should be 3-5 cm, but can be increased in well conditioned persons to 7-8 cm. This measures the contraction of the diaphragm.
difficulty breathing or pain on breathing.
causes shortness of breath. It is called an obstructive lung disease because the destruction of lung tissue around the bronchioles, makes the airways unable to hold their shape properly when you exhale.
vibratory tremors esp. those felt through the chest wall by palpation; they include vocal or tactile.
an increased respiratory rate or deeper than normal breathing, as during or after exercise
an increased resonance produced when an area is percussed.
abnormally rapid, deep breathing
a very deep gasping type of respiration associated with diabetic ketoacidosis.
labored breathing that occurs when lying flat and is relieved by sitting down
Platypnea is a rare symptom of dyspnea in the upright position. It is relieved by assumption of the recumbent position and is the converse of orthopnea.
pleural friction rub
low pitched, grating, or creaking sounds that occur when inflamed pleural surfaces rub together during respiration.
collapsed lung caused by accumulation of air or gas in pleural cavity
Palpated test used to see thoracic expansion while inhaling. Use of accessory muscles on inspiration. ie, COPD
to vibrate with; the state of a system in which an abnormally large vibration is produced in response to an external stimulus.
a low pitched wheezing, snoring, or squeaking sound heard during auscultation of the chest of a person with partial airway obstruction.
a high pitched harsh sound occurring during inspiration; a sign of an upper airway obstruction -a life threatening condition.
an abnormal rapid respiration
a continuous musical sound caused by narrowing the lumen of the respiratory passage.
pertaining to the bronchi- passages smaller than 1 mm in diameter
pertain to bronchial tubes and alveoli with special reference to sounds intermediate between the bronchial or tracheal sounds and vesicular sounds.
breath sound heard over the trachea
an abnormal increase in tone or clarity in vocal resonance. The numbers "ninety-nine" or "sixty-six" are traditionally mentioned, though now only as illustrations of profound loss of meaning through translation. Whispered pectoriloquy is used to identify
an abnormal change in tone, somewhat like a goat; the pure sound has become louder and more nasal in quality.
test performed during a medical physical examination to evaluate for the presence of consolidation in the lungs, which could be caused by cancer or pneumonia.; often ask the patient to whisper "ninety-nine" while listening over the lung fields: the sound will be louder in areas where consolidation is present.
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