ASTR 1060 Ch. 1
Terms in this set (69)
In the case of a scientific hypothesis, if an experiment produces negative results:
The hypothesis must be discarded or revised.
The Crab Nebula is:
Expanding outward at a rate that links it to the event that occurred in 1054.
When does hypothesis testing stop?
What is the order of steps in the Scientific Method?
Hypothesis, prediction, testing
If a hypothesis is revised, what is the next step?
The Scientific Method is repeated starting with the new hypothesis.
How many predictions can be made from one hypothesis?
There is no limit to predictions. Credibility increases as more predictions are tested.
How does an astronomer come up with a new hypothesis?
Astronomers spend years studying basic information before proposing a hypothesis.
Which of the following is NOT a true statement about the Scientific Method?
The scientific method produces quick answers to questions.
What development made it possible for scientists years later to uncover the first new information about the event witnessed in 1054?
The telescope was invented.
A Sidereal day is:
Shorter than a solar day.
Stars set on the western horizon:
A little earlier every day.
Polaris is important to astronomers because it:
Marks the point in the sky above the Earth's north pole.
You observe the constellation Cygnus on the eastern horizon at 9pm. One hour later, at 10pm, you expect to see Cygnus
Higher above the eastern horizon.
Where on Earth would you be located if you unable to observe any circumpolar constellations?
The constellation of Andromeda is directly overhead California at midnight. Where would a person in Washington, D.C. look to view Andromeda at the same time (9 PM eastern time)?
To the west.
As you travel from the North Pole to the Equator, the number of circumpolar constellations
If the center of the constellation Andromeda is directly overhead at midnight tonight, when will it be directly overhead at midnight next?
A year from tonight.
A star observed to be directly below Polaris at 6 PM where do you expect to find the star later that night at 6 AM (twelve hours later)?
Directly above Polaris
The fact that stars appear to rise a little earlier each night is due to
Earth's rotation and revolution.
No matter where you are located, a star that rises:
In the east will set in the west.
Stars at the north pole will appear to revolve _____ around the sky while stars at the South Pole will appear to revolve _____ around the sky.
Why do stars appear to rise and set?
The earth is rotating on its axis.
How does the rising and setting of stars change as you move up the globe from the equator to the pole?
Fewer and fewer stars rise and set.
On the celestial sphere, what is the point directly overhead called?
If one of NASA's missions put a rover on another planet and stars were observed to rise in the west and set in the east, what could we conclude?
The planet turns opposite to the way the Earth rotates.
At any one moment when you are out observing the night sky, you can see:
At most half of the stars visible from earth.
For an observer at a mid-northern latitude, a star rises north of due east and passes directly overhead. Where will it set?
North of due West.
In the northern hemisphere, for a star which rises due east, who will observe it higher in the sky when it reaches its highest point?
A person at a lower latitude.
An observer at 35 N latitude observes a star rise due east, while an observer at 35 S latitude also observes a star rise due east at the same time. Which of the following is false?
The northern observer will see the star reach a higher maximum altitude than the southern observer.
Seasons are caused by:
the tilt of the earth.
For people living:
on the equator, the sun is directly overhead exactly twice a year, on the equinoxes.
For people living in the continental United States, you would face ____ to look directly at the Sun at noon on the summer solstice.
The southern hemisphere experiences the summer season when the:
northern hemisphere experiences the winter season.
when would you expect the ground to be heated more by the Sun?
A new planet is discovered that has no tilt to its axis. Which of the follow must be true about this planet?
The hours of daylight are the same every day at 35 N latitude.
When it is the ____ day of the year in New York City, USA, it will be the _____ day of the year in Sydney, Australia.
If the Sun is giving off the same amount of energy year-round, when is the energy least concentrated on the ground for an observer living at 35 N latitude?
When do people in Sydney, Australia observe the Sun above the horizon for the longest period of time (i.e., when are their days the longest)?
All of the above:
when the united states experiences their shortest day of the year.
On their first day of summer.
When the Sun is highest in their sky at noon.
After a long night of partying, one of your friends yells "road trip!" you all hop in the car and keep driving. When you finally reach your destination it is noon and you see the sun directly overhead. You look at the calendar and see that it is December 21st. At what latitude are you?
the tropic of Capricorn 23.5 S
We see the Moon because:
it reflects the light of the sun.
A waxing crescent moon occurs:
when the relative positions of the earth, moon and sun allow us to see just a sliver of the illuminated side of the moon.
A full moon occurs when:
the half of the moon facing earth is also the half of the moon illuminated by the sun.
On a particular day, the moon rises in the waxing gibbous phase. What phase is it when it sets?
If the Moon is in the first quarter phase today, what phase will it be one week from now?
At what time does a waning crescent moon set?
You are meeting a friend for a late dinner at 9 PM. While waiting for him, you notice the Moon setting on the western horizon. What phase is it?
You look at the Moon and notice that more than half of the side facing the earth is illuminated, and that it is illuminated on the left-hand side. Because of this, you know that it is a..
waning gibbous moon.
Which of the following lunar phases is never seen above the horizon at 7 PM?
If the moon sets at 7 PM tonight, it will set around _____ tomorrow night.
The intersection of the Earth's orbital plane and the lunar orbital plane:
is called the line of nodes.
A partial eclipse can be seen:
when only part of the moon passes through the umbra of the Earth's shadow.
During a total eclipse:
all of the moon passes through the umbra (or darkest part) of the earth's shadow.
During a penumbra eclipse:
none of the moon passes through the umbra ( or darkest part) of the earth's shadow.
For an eclipse to occur, the alignment of the sun, earth, and moon must be exact. This can only happen:
during the full moon.
On which of the following dates and times would it be possible to see a lunar eclipse
March 21st at midnight
Why isn't there a lunar eclipse every month?
the moon's orbit is tilted by 5 degrees to the plane of the earth's orbit.
Why does the moon appear red during a total eclipse?
the earth's atmosphere bends red light onto the moon during a total eclipse, giving it a reddish appearance.
During an eclipse, the shadow of the Earth appear curved as it moves across the Moon because:
the earth is round.
On average, lunar eclipses occur about how often?
2 times a year
Most people who observe a solar eclipse:
tend to observe a partial solar eclipse.
During a total solar eclipse:
the moon completely blocks our view of the sun's photo sphere.
How long do solar eclipses last, for an observer at a given location?
During what lunar phase is it possible for a solar eclipse to occur?
Why isn't there a solar eclipse each month?
the moon's orbit is tilted by 5 degrees to the plane of the earth's orbit.
Why doesn't everyone on the daylight side of the earth see every solar eclipse?
the moon is roughly four times smaller than the earth, so the total shadow of the moon only falls on a small region of earth.
What is an annular eclipse?
a total eclipse where the moon's apparent size is smaller than the sun's apparent size and the moon doesn't completely block the photosphere of the sun.
People see a partial eclipse:
when a partial shadow (or penumbra) falls over them so the Moon only blocks part of the Sun.
What if the Moon's orbit were larger than it currently is? which types of solar eclipses would still occur?
both partial and annular solar eclipses.
Eclipse paths move eastward across the earth due to
the moon's orbit around the earth.