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The idea that God created the monarchy and that the monarch acted as God's representative on Earth
contract that stated Maria Theresa would be the heir to the Austrian throne, even as a woman
Petition of Right
1628. Signed by Charles I. No imprisonment without due cause; no taxes levied without Parliament's consent; soldiers not housed in private homes; no martial law during peace time.
English Civil War
fought between those who supported Charles I (royalists also called cavaliers) and those who opposed him (roundheads). Roundheads led to victory by Oliver Cromwell. They arrested and tried King Charles for treason, he was found guilty and executed
time when Oliver Cromwell was in charge from 1649-1658, he abolished the monarchy, and the House of Lords and sent Parliament home. He ruled as a dictator
parliament invited Charles II to rule as king, but made him sign Habeas Corpus. the time of Charles II's reign, the return of the monarchy
The new capital of Russia set by Peter the Great on the Neva River so Russia could have a warm water port to be associated with European Affairs
Thirty Years' War
1618, Protestants in Bohemia rebelled against Ferdinand II, a Catholic, prompting the revolt of German Princes
Peace of Westphalia
Ended the Thirty Years' War, weakened Hapsburg states (Russia and Spain), strengthened France, Made German Provinces free from Holy Roman Empire, introduced new method of Peace negotiations. Abandoned idea of Catholic European Empire
English Bill of Rights
basis of US Bill of Rights, created the Cabinet, created the Parliamentary system of government
Seven Years' War
French and Indian War, first European war with Russia involved, no territory change in Europe, ended with The Treaty of Paris 1763
Causes of Absolutism
decline of feudalism, rise of cities, growth of national kingdoms, growing middle class, decline of the Church's authority
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