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Arts and Humanities
Ancient Greece and Rome
Terms in this set (99)
Greece is surrounded by
Ionian Sea, Aegean Sea, and Mediterranean Sea
Greece is located on a
What percent of Greece is covered in mountains?
The geography divided Greece into
many regions, city states
Founded n 2000BC
militaristic, ruled by a warrior-king, and used seaborne trade
In 1500BC the Mycenaeans came in contact with them
seaborne trade, Minoan system of writing and Minoan art
What is a polis?
fundamental political unit of ancient Greece
What did the Greek polis' include?
Made up of a city and its surrounding land; generally home to less than 10,000
What is an acropolis?
A fortified hilltop where Greek citizens gathered to discuss societal and political issues
In a Monarchy who rules?
What are the major characteristics of a Monarchy?
some rulers claim divine right
practiced in Mycenae
Modern Day: Saudi Arabia
Who rules in an aristocracy?
What are the major characteristics of an aristocracy?
hereditary rule based on social rank and wealth
practiced in Athens prior to 594 BC
founded in Modern Day: Great Britain
Who rules in an Oligarchy?
a small group of citizens
What are the major characteristics of an Oligarchy?
rule is based on wealth or ability
controls the military
practice in Sparta by 500 BC
Found in Modern Day: Pakistan
Who rules in Direct Democracy?
rule based on citizen
What are the major characteristics of a Direct Democracy?
Majority rule decides vote
Practiced in Athens by 500 BC
government emphasized individuality and responsibility. Assembly, Council of 500, Direct Democracy, Ostracism - politician exiled if name on 6000 ostraca
Well rounded education
all free men over the age of 18 could participate
women had no legal right and no formal education. Not very much well respected
citizens, metics, and slaves
military at age 18 for 2 years
values: honor, beauty, individuality, athleticism
every individual belonged to state
government: kings (2), Ephors (5), council of elders, assembly, Oligarchy
Spartiates, Perioeci, Helots
some women had military training and athletic training, but could not participate in government
military began at age 7 entered military at 18
duty, honor, bravery, obedience, military power
What characteristics unified Greek-city states?
language, religion, common economy, common ancestry, Olympics
What divided Greek city states?
political systems, geography, culture, values, slavery, war, economics, education, military
What caused the Persian War?
Persians conquered Ionia in 546 BC and angered Ionian Greeks who received aid from mainland Greeks
Who fought in Persian War?
Greece vs. Persia
What was the outcome of the Persian War?
Formation of Delian League
Athens thinks they were the reason Greece won
Formation of Delian League
Alliance between 140 city states
What caused the Peloponnesian war?
rivalry between Athens and Sparta turned into civil war
who fought in the Peloponnesian war?
Athens vs Sparta
what was the outcome of the Peloponnesian war?
Sparta captures Athens
what sparked the golden age of Athens?
defeat of Persians in Persian war turned Athens into greek leader
formation of the delian league: alliance between 140 city-states
who was pericles and what were his 3 goals for Athens?
great Athenian leader
1) strengthen democracy
2) strengthen the empire
3) glorify Athens
what was the aim of Greek art and architecture?
focused on harmony, order, balance and proportion
Question and answer method
plato was his teacher
taught by Plato
absolute standards exist for truth and justice
came from a wealthy family
opened school called the Lyceum
put on trial for corrupting the youth of Athens
founded a school called the academy
questioned the nature of the world
sentenced to death
school lasted for 900 years
invented method of arguing using logic
died by drinking hemlock
wrote The Republic; perfectly governed society
basis for scientific method
taught alexander the great
where was Macedonia?
large kingdom north of Greece
who was Philip II and what were his primary accomplishments?
Ruler of Macedonia, defeated Greece
Who was Alexander the Great and what were his primary accomplishments?
Son of Phillip II, leader of Macedonia after his father's death
successfully conquered Persia
successfully conquered/liberated Egypt from Persian control; founded the city of Alexandria
spread Hellenistic Culture
What was the extent of Alexander's empire?
The empire spread from Macedonia and Greece all the way to India and included Egypt
What were the contributing influences in regards to Hellenistic culture?
How was Hellenistic culture developed?
Alexander the Great had HUGE CULTURAL IMPACT
he blended many different cultures
resulted in a NEW culture: Hellenistic Culture
What was the significance of Alexandria?
Located on Nile River
the cultural and trading center of Hellenistic civilization
First Research library, and museum
How did the Etruscans influence life on the Italian Peninsula?
the usage of brick
construction of city streets
creation of the Forum- architecture/arch
arts and written language. Romans used their alphabet
What is the definition of a republic?
a form of government in which power rests with the citizens
citizens have the right to select their leaders
TWO MAIN social groups of the roman republic
Particians and Plebeians
rich could hold public office
common people could not hold public office
The "Legislative" Branch (group of officials who created laws)
in the event of a war, the roman people chose a dictator who ruled for 6 months at a time (possessed complete control)
The "Executive" branch: two senators elected to rule the government for one year at a time
what is a tribune?
an official elected by the plebeians to represent them
why was the tribune established?
Plebeians refused to fight in the Roman army unless they were given more Political Power
Patricians agreed to grant more power to the Plebeian class by establishing the Tribune
Julius Ceaser granted Roman citizenship to people
living in roman provinces
Julius Ceaser expanded
Julius Ceaser aided the poor by
Julius Ceaser increased
pay for military
Julius Ceaser declared himself
Consul for Life
Julius ceaser was assassinated
stabbed 23 times, Chaoes ensues
What is a triumvirate?
a group of three leaders sharing control of the government
the first triumvirate?
The second triumvirate?
Octavian, mark Anthony, Lepidus
After Octavian defeats Mark Anthony
(he and Cleopatra commit suicide) he becomes "Augustus the exalted one"
The Pax Romana
"Roman Peace", good agriculture and trade, built roads, etc.
used math and science to build temples, baths, bridges(the arch) and aqueducts
arched bridges made of stone carried water from the hills into cities
Greco- Roman architecture
colosseum, pantheon- temple to all gods and goddesses, aqueducts- brought fresh water to Rome
Greco- Roman Language/Literature
official language was latin
Influenced many languages: spansih, French, Italian, Portuguese, and Romanian
roman senator; great orator
wrote the Aeneid (modeled after Homer's epics)
How has Roman culture influenced our modern culture?
government- we have a republican democracy today
scholars still use questions Aristotle raised
films based on odyssey
Christianity basic info and beliefs
one god; watches over and cares for his people
Jesus Christ died to save humanity form sin
eternal life after death
who did Christianity initially appeal to? why?
Christianity first appealed to the poor
offered salvation and provided hope for a better life
embraced all people
roman s persecuted Christians for their beliefs
How did Roman Emperors feel about the development of Christianity? Why?
Emperors felt that Christians opposed Roman rule because they refused to worship the many roman gods
Fall of Rome Empire
unhappy citizens, bad emperors, large gap between rich and poor
large farms and farmers buy out small farms and farmers, soil overworked
poor sanitary- disease spreads
military tires to sway politicians, have to recruit mercenaries
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