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61 terms

Biology 102 Exam 1

Evolutionary history of a group of organisms
gene pool
total aggregate of all the genes in a population
sedimentary rock
fossils are found here
synapomorphic characteristic
derived or unique to a group
organisms that caused the oxygen revolution
era of time 70-230 mya
hypothesis that every boundary between different layers of rock corresponded to a traumatic event
process where bacteria takes dna from the enviornment and inserts it into its own chromosome
Fichs Law
Describes factors that affect the rate of diffusion
offspring when members of 2 different species mate together
4.6 bya
age of the earth
formed from molten lava
blending hypothesis
offspring will be an intermediate of the parents
james hutton
came up with the idea called gradualism
includes an ancestor and all of its descendents
hardy weinberg equation
homologous structure
structures in different organisms that were inherited from a common ancestor
uses light to make atp but get its organic molecules from something else
protobiont mentioned in class
the oldest fossils of prokaryotes are found in this sedimentary rock
oparin and haldane
the two scientists that speculated tht the atmosphere was different than today
RNA molecule capable of catalyzing a chemical reaction
3.5 bya
earlist fossils were found during this time
the idea that acquired characteristics were inherited
small optional chromosome in acteria
contained charged particles that catalyzed bonds between monomers
Hardy - Weinberg Equilibrium
describes a non evolving population, a population wich genetic structure does not change from one generation to the next
1. large population size
2. no migration
3. no natural selection
4. random mating
5. no mutations
apomorphic characteristics of plants
1. life cycle: alternation of generations
2. multicellular dependent embryos with placental transfer cells
3. apical meristems
4. walled apex spores
5. Multicellular gametangium
change in a single gene in a population over time
material that consists of carbohydrates ith short polypeptides in the cell walls
allopatric speciation
speciation from geolocial isolation
ex: overtime a river cuts beteen two trees and causes them to be different
ex: grand canyon splits two squirrls causing them to be differen becasue they can mate
sympatric speciation
when a species arises in the midst of another species
1. Polyploidy speciation
- diploid gametes
-in plants, fatal in animals
2. Habitat differential
-chichlid fish
3. Sexual Selection
-unicellular prokaryotes
-extremophiles(extreme conditions)
-halophiles (live in extreme salinity, salt loving, ond in california)
-thermophiles(heat loving, live in extreme hear, ex: geysers)
one of 3 domains
natural Selection
Darwins mechanism for evolution
-Diffferential reproduction
1. competititon due to limited resources
2. variation occurs
3. population sizes are stable
4. great potential for fertility
Origin of the Eukaryotic Cell
1. Autogenic hypothesis
2. Endosymbiotic Theory
Autogenic hypothesis
plasma membrane of a eukaryotic cell folds in and pinches off and the enfolding form organelles
es: golgi body and ER
Endosymbiotic Theory
-proposed by Lynn Magulis
-ancestors of eukaryotes engulfed prokaryotes to form modern day eukaryotes
ex: cyanobacteria --> photosynthesis--> chloroplast
ex: aerobic bactera--> transition reaction--> mitochondria
evidence: mitochondrian and chloroplast have a double membrane
evidence:mitochondrian and chloroplast DNA is small circular
-bacteria also have ribosomes
When a cell engulfs another cell
Miller and Urey experiment
Used a closed system that contained inorganic compounds such as H2S, NO2 and had an energy source (electric current) this was to simulate lightning and the atmosphere back then. let it sit for a couple of days and found that organic monomers were formed(amino acids and nucleic acids)
-confirmed oparin and haldanes hypothesis
Transfer of genetic material(plasmid) from cell to cell by means of a conjunction tube.
-it is bacterial sex
Prezygotic Isolation
Habitat isolation
Timewise Isolation(mating seasons differ)
Mechanical Isolation(reproductive organs)
Behavioral Isolation
Postzygotic Isolation
hybrids do not survive or are sterile
Ceozoic era
0-65 mya
230-600 mya
cambrian period was the first period
origin of Life
1. Abiotic sythesis and accumulation of monomers
(Miller and Urey experiment)
2. Abiotic Polymerization (sydney Fox: inorganic catalyst typically metal ions(copper and iron) would form the large orgainic molecules. Clay contians charged particles will attract and bond monomers
3. Formation of the protocell(spherical structure with a membrane like suface
4. Origin of heredity:there was and RNA world where living things catalyzed chemical reactions and genes are made of RNA
Cell Structure
1. Rod Shaped (bacilli)
2. Sperical (cocci)
3.Spiral (spirilli)
Metabolism of the Cell
1. photoautotroph(light E own organic)
2. Photoheterotroph (light E outside organic)*****
3. Chemautotroph (chemical E own organic)*****
4. Chemoheterotroph ( chemical E outside organic)
Reproduction of Bacteria
1. Binary Fission
2. Mutations
3.Sexual Reproduction
b. transformation
c. conjugation
4. Horizontal Gene transfer
Binary Fission
Duplicates chromosome, PM grows inward, fuse together, cell wall is secreted, takes 30 mins
important form of variation
-phage takes over bacteria cell and make more phages. a piece of chromosome is accidentally put into phage coat(capsid) which contains phage DNA.
-the infected phage cell comines with the new cell DNA.
-the infected phage cell transfers bacteria to another bacteria cell
-happens 1 in a million times
bacteria cell with its own chromosome can take in a piece of DNA from enviornment which is inserted into the bacteria chromosome
one bacteria cell will attach to another with a conjugation tube; the plasmid is copied in one cell and is passed through the tube into the ajoining cell
Horizontal Gene Transfer
prokaryotes pick up new genes through transduction, transformation, and conjugation
in one condition it is a photoautotroph and in another condition it is a chemoheterotroph
ex: euglena
sunlight E if floating at surface of water, if it sinks down it can eat the bacteria in the water
Volvox Multicellular protist
first organism in the planet to evolve multicellularity
monophyletic group
includes an ancestor and all of its decendents
aka CLADE (named by cladists)
an organ that transports nutrients from mos bloodstream to the fetus
4 steps in evolution of plants
1. 425 mya evolution of bryophytes
2. 400 mya evolution of vascular plants
3.360 mya evolution of the seed
4. 130 mya evolution of angiosperms
Vascular tissues
1. Xylom--> conducts sap from roots to leaves to transfer water
2. Phloem--> sap is thck and sticky(sucrose)
produced in leaves and goes to other parts of the plant that needs energy
conifers, pine, cedar, cyprus