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22 terms

geo chapter 3

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carbonates
minerals that contain combinations of carbon and oxygen in their chemical structure.
cleavage
the tendency of a mineral to break along preferred planes
conchoidal fracture
A broken surface with concentric, raised surface markings looking similar to the ridges on a seashell (see also fracture).
crystal
a rock formed by the solidification of a substance
crystal face
the flat surface of an euhedral mineral grain
crystal habit
the general shape of a crystal or cluster of crystals that grew unimpeded
crystal lattice
the orderly framework within which the atoms or ions within a crystal
crystal structure
the internal arrangement of atoms or ions within a crystal
facet
a smooth surface (as of a bone or cut gemstone)
gem
art highly prized for its beauty or perfection
geode
(mineralogy) a hollow rock or nodule with the cavity usually lined with crystals
hardness
a measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched
luster
the visual property of something that shines with reflected light
mineral
solid homogeneous inorganic substances occurring in nature having a definite chemical composition
mineralogy
the branch of geology that studies minerals: their structure and properties and the ways of distinguishing them
Mohs hardness scale
a scale ranking ten minerals from softest to hardest; used in testing the hardness of minerals
polymorph
One of two or more alternative possible crystal structures for a single chemical compound; for example, the minerals quartz and cristobalite are polymorphs of silica (SiO2).
silicate mineral
a mineral that contains a combination of silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals
silicon-oxygen tetrahedron
the basic unit of the structure of silicate minerals; a silicon ion chemically bonded to and surrounded by four oxygen ions
specific gravity
the density of a substance relative to the density of water
streak
a marking of a different color or texture from the background
symmetry
having the same shape, size, and position on both sides of a dividing line