40 terms

Chapter 3: The Molecules of Life

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organic compounds
carbon based molecules with Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
hydrocarbons
simplest organic compounds that only have hydrogen and carbon
functional groups
groups of atoms that usually participate in chemical reactions together
hydroxyl groups
-OH
carboxyl groups
-COOH
macromolecules
"large" molecules
polymers
made up of smaller molecules
monomers
small unitds that make up a larger molecule
dehydration reaction
links two monomers together and removes a molecule of water
hydrolysis
breaks bonds between monomers, adds a water molecule, and is the reverse of the dehydration reaction
carbohydrates
sugars and polymers of sugars
monosaccharides
simple sugar, functional unit of carbohydrates
isomers
molecules that have the same molecular structure but different physical structures
disaccharide
double sugar, constructed from two monosaccharides, formed by a dehydration reaction
polysaccharide
many sugars strung together, long chains of sugar units
starch
common example of polysaccharide made by plants
glycogen
common example of polysaccharide made by animals
cellulose
does not easily dissolve in water, hard rigid part of plant cell walls
hydrophillic
water loving, most carbohydrates stick to water
lipids
glycerol molecule and three fatty acids
triglycerides
store energy, cushion organs, and insulation
unsaturated fatty acid
fewer than the maximum number of hydrogens, liquids at room temperature
saturated fatty acid
maximum number of hydrogens, solids at room temperature
atherosclerosis
lipid-containing plaques build up along the inside walls of blood vessels
hydrogenation
adds hydrogens, converts unsaturated fats to saturated fats = trans fat
steroids
lipids that have ring structures that have varied functions in the human body
cholesterol
key component of cell call and the base steroid for all other steroids made in the human body
protein
made up of amino acids and perform most tasks required to maintain life, form enzymes
amino acids
subunits of proteins, contain carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen as their base, with a functional group (function group determines type)
peptide bonds
form by dehydration reactions between amino acids
polypeptides
long chains of amino acids less than 100 a.a.s long
primary structure
specific sequence of amino acids in a protein molecule
denaturation
protein unravels and loses its shape due to changes in pH and/or temperature
nucleic acids
store information and provide instructions for building proteins
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid-- double helix
RNA
ribonucleic acid -- single stranded
gene
specific stretch of DNA that programs the amino acids sequence of a polypeptide
nucleuotides
monomers of nucleic acids, contains a five-carbon sugar, phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
double helix
two strands of DNA joined together
nitrogenous bases
adenine (A), guanine (G), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and Uracil (U)