Terms in this set (247)
What are Quick Breads?
Quick breads are Products leavened with a leavening agent other than yeast
When creating Quick breads what is generated?
Steam or CO2 generated from reaction of acid and alkali Can be prepared in a short time and backed immediately
What kind of product causes quick breads to be Created in a longer time
Baking powder Which derives co2 Causes quick breads To be cooked in the longest amount of time
What are examples of quick breads
Some examples in quick breads are Muffins Popovers, Nut loafs, Cornbread, Cream puffs, Waffles, Pancakes, Cakes, and Doughnuts.
How are different products of quick breads created
Different products of quick breads are due to differences in ingredients, Ratios of ingredients (dry ingredients vs. water),Methods of mixing and Ways of baking
What are some ingredients of Quick Breads
Flour Liquid Salt Common to all quick breads Leaven Fat Sugar Eggs
What does flour do for quick breads
Gives elasticity to batters or dough it Contributes to structure or rigidity Because Gluten is responsible for the elasticity it Cannot have structure w/o flour Starch is the main ingredient in flour gluten is coagulated by heat and the starch which is gelatinized
What does liquid do for quick breads
Liquid is Needed to dissolve sugar, salt and soda and acid in baking powder. Baking powderCauses soda and acid to ionize and produce CO2. Liquids Hydrates protein so gluten can form, it Hydrates starch for gelatinization, and it is Converted to steam for leavening leavening agents creates steam, CO2, and air
What do leavening agents create
Leavening agents create steam, co2, air
What does Salt do for quick breads
What Salt does for quick breads are it Improves taste and Influences rate and degree of hydration of flour
What does leaven do for quick breads
What Leaven does for quick breads is It increases volume And is Responsible for grain of baked product
What does Fat do for quick breads
What fats do for quick breads is they tenderize the product, Limits ease of gluten development, Lubricates gluten strands that are already formed
What does eggs do for quick breads
What eggs do for quick breads is it provides Means of incorporating air (beaten) and Protein and that contributes to elasticity to batter
What does sugar do for quick breads
What Sugar does for quick bread is that it increases the quick breads in Sweetness it Decreases uptake of water by flour which interferes with gluten development and Serves as means of incorporating air into fat, sugar also Aids in browning reactions between reducing sugars and protein
What are the three types of quick bread mixtures
pour batter, drop batter and stiff doughs
What are Pour Batters
Pancakes, waffles, popovers and cream puffs that have a Ratio of liquid to flour 1:1 and it is thin enough to pour
What are Drop Batters
Drop batters are made 2 parts flour to 1 part liquid the common drop batters are muffins, drop biscuits. The Dough is stiff enough to handle
What are Stiff Doughs
Stiff dough are Higher ratio of flour to liquid some stiff doughs are Cookies, pastry dough, noodle
What are Mixing Method dictated by
Mixing methods are dictated by the manner in which fat is distributed
What are the Three mixing methods:
Biscuit method, Muffin method, and Conventional methods
What is the process of the Biscuit Method
The process of the biscuit method is Solid Fat is cut into small pieces, Dry ingredients are sifted and then fat is added , Liquid is added all at once to moisten, and then Gentle kneading as final step the Final product has flaky texture and In the oven fat melts and leaves a space to steam and co2 to collect
What is the process of the Muffin Method
The process of the muffin method is that Liquid fat is dispersed in other liquid ingredients, Dry ingredients are sifted together and liquid ingredients including liquid oil or melted fat are blended in another bowl and added to dry ingredients. And the Products from the muffin method has a coarse open texture
What is the process of the Conventional Method
The process from the conventional method is A hard fat and is creamed with sugar after the fat is creamed with sugar we add beaten eggs. Dry ingredients are added a third at a time followed by mixing and two additions of half the milk at a time
What is the most common kind of bread
Yeast breads are an Important food all over the world and it is Hard to find a culture that does not make bread
What are the essential ingredients of yeast breads
Flour, liquid, yeast, and salt
What are the usual ingredients in yeast bread
Sugar, Fat which is Optional, and Eggs
What are the Three Methods of Combining Ingredients in yeast breads
The straight dough, the no need method, and the sponge method
What is the straight dough
The Straight dough includes All ingredients are combined, the Dough is kneaded before it is allowed to rise
what is the No-Knead method
The no knead method is Bread with a high proportion of liquid and with this way Gluten can be developed by stirring
What is the sponge method
The Sponge Method is when Yeast is dispersed in liquid combined with part of the flour
What is the Purpose of Mixing
The purpose of mixing is To distribute ingredients uniformly and To form glutenin polymers To bring glutenin polymers in contact with gliadin If over mixing occurs polymers dissociate
What are the Reasons for Kneading
To develop gluten some more and To incorporate air To make gluten more elastic: Gas holding capacity
What does kneading do for the preparation of yeast breads
What kneading does for the preperation of yeast breads is that Over-worked and under-worked dough leaks gas the Gentle stretching and folding is required so strands of gluten are not broken and When gluten is fully developed, dough becomes stretchy and elastic
After kneading what occurs in the Fermentation step
After kneading, bread is ready to rise. Temperature is also a factor in fermentation the Rate of fermentation increases with temperature at Ideally 80 degrees F. which is Less than body temperature so the Dough should feel cool to the touch
What is Fermentation
Fermentation is the Production of Acid from Yeast and what it actually produces is acid with co2. So the pH decreases and Acid favors fermentation and amylase activity. Fermentation Makes dough less sticky and more elastic
What can you see physically during Fermentation
What you physically see is the dough rising the inflating and stretching,
What is actually happening when dough is rising
What is happening is the Stretching of films of gluten (essential) and this is what cause it to double in volume
What does Punching the Dough do for making yeast breads
When done gently it Can allow dough to rise a second time. And the amount it will rise the second time is 1/2 time of the first time
What is the Purpose of Punching the Dough
When punching the dough it Keeps films of gluten from being overstretched. It Distributes yeast cells uniformly and it Distributes nutrients needed by yeast it also Equalizes temperature
What is Proofing
Proofing is when Punched dough is ready to be shaped and the dough is Shaped in a pan and is allowed to rise again and you don't have Proof until volume is doubled
What occurs during the Baking of yeast breads
Yeast breads are baked in hot oven (400 - 425°F) but the Initial Phase there is a dramatic increase in volume due to CO2 its May be 80% in volume from shaped dough put into oven
What happens when you bake yeast breads in a Oven Too Hot
The final volume becomes less and the crust denatures before gases have time to achieve maximum leavening
What happens when you bake yeast breads in a Oven Too Cool
This will cause too much expansion, it becomes very porous in texture and also it May be compact if gluten strands are stretched too much
How does crust browning occur when making yeast breads
It is due to Maillard reactions the C=O of sugar with NH2 of amino acids and NH2 are needed to be free on lysine and arginine, and Milk enhances browning because lactose is available
What is staling
Staling is the Deteriorative changes and the retrogradation of Starch, One of first changes (water loss) and the reaction is Reversed when bread is warmed, but Recurs when it cools. Refrigeration accelerates retrogradation and it is Only good to preserve from mold/ contamination
How can you visually describe the Retrogradation of Starch
Upon cooling the linear portion of these molecules line up. They remain together due to H bonding. This
process removes the water from in between them so they can crystallize together. This is called retrogradation
What are the importance Leavening Agents?
Leavining agents Provide gas to inflate the elastic mass of bakery products Without them products will be heavy and compact Leavining agents Provide ligthness and porosity to baked products
What are the different Types of leavening agents?
The different types of leavening agents are made with Steam, Air, and Carbon dioxide. And what comes out of it is yeast bacteria and chemicals
What is the primary leavening agent in cream puffs and popovers?
The primary leavening agent in cream puffs and popovers is steam and All dough and batters have some liquid to provide steam
How much of an increase in bread is the cause of steam
1,600 fold increase in volume when water turns to steam
How do we ensure that Steam will be created
Liquid to flour Ratio must be high and Water should not be bound to dry ingredients. So the Flour vol.= liquid vol after the ratios are correct Bake in hot oven and the water in the mixture will create steam
What are the properties of Steam
Steam Presses against air cells walls and stretches cells until protein denatures the Gluten in the batter is too dilute to hold steam. And steam always contributes to volume
What does pop overs and cream puffs contain that helps hold the steam in
Popovers and cream puffs contain eggs to help to hold steam
When are Air bubbles incorporated
When ingredients are combined, air bubbles are incorporated
When does air expand?
Air exapands when heated but at a much smaller ratio compared to steam
What are air bubbles essential for?
Air bubbles; essential for the function of steam as leavening agent
What kind of leavening agent is used in pound cakes?
Pound cakes use air and steam
What happens if air is evacuated in cakes?
When air is evacuated, cakes do not rise
What are some Techniques to incorporate air?
Some techniques to incorporate air is the Use of whole eggs, egg whites or yolks and even Products containing fat
What percentage of air does commercial shortening contain?
most commercial shortenings contain 12% air
How do you cream fats
The Creaming of fats is used by a spoon or spatula to incorporate air
What does Mixing and Beating do for leaving agents
Mixing beyond optimal levels can stiffen the dough and can lead to loss of air
What are the Factors limiting incorporation of air into products
Use of liquid shortenings, Cold shortening are difficult to cream, Warm batters are very fluid like and trapped air can float to the top and be released, And Time because you can have maximum air leavening if you bake immediately
How is Carbon Dioxide formed in leavening?
CO2 is Formed by the action of yeast and bacteria on sugar by the Anaerobic metabolism of glucose yields CO2 and H2O and By the action of an acid on the base, baking soda?
What are Yeasts in foods?
Yeast are Saccharomyces cerevisiae and it is a living organism that needs to stay alive for co2 to be produced this Takes place at RT and briefly in the oven.
What kind of yeast is there?
Compressed yeast cakes and active dry yeast
Compressed yeast cakes and active dry yeast
It can Store in the refrigerator for 5 weeks and it Dissolved in lukewarm water (32 to 38 degree C)
How long can you store Active dry yeast?
It Can store at RT for 6 months. In freezer for 2 years and Must be rehydrated at 38-46 degree C
When is Yeast allowed to have its action?
After mixing dough, yeast is allowed to have its action and the action is when glucose forms its products Glucose à 2CH3-CH2-OH + 2CO2
What are the Affecting Factors in leavening
Fermentation, temperature and sugar Affects leavening
When is the rate of gas production in leavening at its best
the rate of gas production at Ideally 25 to 27.7 degrees C (78-82 degrees F)
What will happen if the temperature is to high in things you are trying to leaven
If temperature is too high other micro-organisms will flourish and the Results will be a sour flavor
What is the types of Sugar that affects leavening?
What sugars are favored in leavening agents?
Glucose is preferred. Most yeast recipes include sugars like Sucrose and maltose can be used to produce glucose from amylose
What makes sucrose
sucrose= glucose + fructose
What is the influence of Salt in leavening
Salt has an Influence on osmotic pressure of yeast, it is Beneficial in enhancing the activity of amylase it Reduces breakdown of protein by proteases and
What happens if you make bread without salt
Without salt, gluten breaks too much and bread becomes porous
What pH is yeast activity the best?
Yeast activity is best between pH 4 and 6
When is acids usually produced when baking?
Some acid is produced during fermentation It may cause pH of dough to drop
What is Bacteria used for?
Bacteria Can also be used for fermentation it is also Used with sour dough and salt rising breads
What are some Sour dough breads?
rye bread and it is made by A starter of microorganisms and it's a Salt-rising bread-made from a dough with both yeast and bacteria
What are commercial starters and what are they usually combined with
Commercial starters are available with pure strains of bacteria and they are Usually combined with yeast
What is a Chemical Leavening Agent
A chemical leavening agent is A reaction between an acid and a base and it can regenerate CO2. the Effectiveness depends on a Amount of gas generated and with Speed it is produced
What is Baking Soda
Baking soda is a Common alkaline ingredient included in baked products and the formula is Sodium bicarbonate + acid = CO2 + salt + water another fomula is NaHCO3 + HX = CO2 + NaX + H2O. It Must be dissolved to react and there is No gas produced if acid is not present
What happens if Baking Soda is not neutralized
If baking soda is not neutralized (enough acid) a bitter flavor, yellow color, coarse texture and increased browning of crust can and will occur
What are some products that have Acid Ingredients?
Soured diary products: buttermilk, yogurt, sour cream Honey, molasses, fruit juices, cream tartar
What are the components if Baking Powder?
Baking powder is Baking soda + acid + cornstarch And this Will produce 12-14% co2 by weight this is More of a reliable leavening agent than baking soda and acid the Cornstarch extends shelf life by absorbing moisture and It also dilutes active ingredients
What are double acting Baking Powders and what do they do
Double acting are also called SAS-Phosphate baking powder. It is considered slow acting and Single acting = fast acting and it React at RT
What is Double acting baking powder
Double acting baking powder is when Some CO2 is produced from monocalcium phosphate monohydrate and jt must react at RT and Some CO2 produced from sodium aluminum sulfate double acting baking powder is a two step reaction
What happens when there is Too much leavening:
You will get Coarse grain,Undersirable flavor, Excess surface browning, and Excess soda- yellow color
What happens when there is Too little leavening
With too little leavening you get a Compact apperance,Low volume,Fine grain, and Soggy texture
What do you want to put into consideration when leavening
When selecting leavening: consider shelf life, preparation, time and cost
What are the different Types of Cakes
There are Cake, Foam Cakes, Shortened Cakes, and Pastries
What are Foam Cakes
Foam Cakes are cakes that are featuring a large quantity of foam it Results in a light airy batter and it has a Coarse texture and the cells are Moderately large
what are some Examples of Foam Cakes
There are angel cakes, sponge cakes, and chiffon cake
What are Angel Cakes
Angel cakes are made with Egg white foam,Sugar, cake flour, and cream of tartar
What are Sponge Cakes
Sponge cakes are made with Egg yolk foam, Egg white foams, and Sugar and cake flour
What are Chiffon Cake
Chiffon cakes are made with Oil and egg yolk, Egg white foam, Baking powder, and Sugar and cake flour
What are the effects the cream of tartar have on Angel Cake
Cream of tartar and the cream of tartar Stabilizes egg white foams and reduces the pH it also bleaches flavonoid pigments and tenderizing effect
What effects the volume in Angel Cake
Angle cake Volume is affected by the amount of sugar, the Quality and temperature of egg whites, and the Extent of beating of the egg (underbeating)
How do you prepare Sponge Cake
- The way you prepare sponge cake is that the Egg yolk has to be more beaten than the egg white because the egg yolk Needs to be viscous to blend with egg white. The Yolk foam traps a large quantity of air and the Weak structure of these cakes makes necessary to cool them in an inverted position
What are Chiffon Cakes and what are they composed of ?
Chiffon cakes are Hybrids of foam cakes and shortened cakes They contain baking powder and fat the Quality is influenced by egg foams and the egg foam is from the Extended beating of egg whites the Yolk mixture in chiffon cake is extremely fluid because of this the yolks may drain to bottom of pan and form a rubbery layer
What are Shortened Cakes and what are they composed of?
Shortened cakes Use Cake flour (bleached) In shortened cakes the Sugar delays gluten formation and the Amount of mixing increased when amount of sugar is increased.
What are the ingredients of Shortened Cakes?
The Quantities of ingredients are Fat and the fat consist of no more than ½ C of sugar and the Fat is no more than the amount of eggs. For sugar the Sugar is no more the amount of flour and the Weight of liquid (milk, eggs) = weight of flour
What is the Use of Cocoa in Cakes?
The Color of chocolate cake depends on color of cocoa and cakes with cocoa has phlobaphene
What is phlobaphene?
Phlobaphene is derivative of a polyphenol formed with oxygen and responsible for reddish color
What happens during the Baking of cakes?
The Oven temperature causes expansion of air and carbon dioxide and the Proteins denature and coagulate ,the Starches begin to gel and the Moisture begins to evaporates
What Causes different variations in shortened cakes?
Yellowing, fallen center, tough and dry crumb, and dark crust, and gummy crystalline appearance
What is Yellowing?
Yellowing is the alkaline batter (excess soda)
What causes Fallen center in shortened cakes
excess sugar or fat, due to inadequate mixing, and by excess baking powder, and too low temperature during baking, and opening of ev
What causes a Tough and dry crumb in shortened cakes
too much flour or egg, too little fat or sugar, and too much mixing or overbaking
What are the causes of Dark Crust in shortened cakes
excess soda, and Fructose promotes browning
What causes a Gummy, crystalline appearance in shortened cakes?
too much sugar, Poor volume, too little baking powder, a too low temperature during baking, and a improper level of sugar or fat
when is it necessary to consider Altitude Adjustments during baking cakes?
To avoid collapse of structure, Modest increase in mixing (gluten), to Reduce amounts of baking powder and sugar, to Add more liquid (for increased evaporation)
What are the different kinds of pastry?
Puff pastry, and pie pastry
What consist of making Puff pastries?
In puff pastry fat is usually butter (2:1 flour/fat)
What consist of Pie pastry?
In pie pastry the Fat is shortening (3:1 flour/fat), but in pie pastries oil, lard or butter can be used
What is the ingredients of Pastries?
Pastries are generally Made with fat, flour, salt and water the Fat differs differs by the type, amount, method of incorporation to dough
What Causes the variations of pastries?
Oil enhances tenderness and the Color of oil to give golden crust.
What are the Types of Texture in pastries?
Mealy and flaky textures
What are mealy textures and what is it related to?
Mealy textures is a Fine, granular type of texture.
Mealy texture: related to oil
What makes a flaky texture?
Flaky textures Consist of numerous thin layers.
Flaky texture: related to shortening or margarine
How are eggs formed?
The yolk in egg are formed in the ovaries of poultry and then the yolk Moves into oviduct, then Layers of white are secreted to surround it If the sperm gets to yolk before, it becomes fertilized than the Shell develops in outer membrane, after that blood vessels rupture and this is what is responsible for blood spots
What is the most important mineral of the shell/ outer membrane?
Calcium is the most important mineral
What are the Structures of the Egg
Germinal disk, vitelline membrane, chalaza, albumen, thin albumin, thick albumen
What is a Germinal Disk?
Germinal Disk: blastoderm of the yolk, which is located at the edge of the yolk and connected to white yolk
What is a Vitelline membrane?
Vitelline membrane: sac enclosing the yolk
What is a Chalaza?
Chalaza: thick rope like extensions that aid in centering the yolk in the egg
What is albumen?
Albumen is the white of an egg?
What is thin albumin?
Thin Albumen is the rather fluid egg white
What is thick albumin?
Thick Albumen is the viscous white forming the middle layer of albumin
How is yolk and white determined?
Yolk and white is determined On a weight basis, volume basis, and ratio to egg white.
How is yolk and white determined on a weight basis
yolk weighs 2 times more than egg white
how is yolk and white determined on a volume basis
yolk and white is determined on a Volume basis by there is 20 ml yolk:30 ml of white
What is the ratio between yolk and white
Ratio remains fairly constant despite actual size of egg
What is the composition of egg
The composition of a whole egg is 66.5% water, 11.8% protein, 11.0% fat, and 11.7% Ash
What is the composition of just the egg white
The egg white is 58% of the whole egg, 88% water, 11%, 2% fat, and .8% ash
What is the composition of just yolk
The yolk is 31% of the whole egg, 48% of water, 17.5% protein, 32.5%fat, and .2% ash
What is the composition of the egg Shell
The egg shell is 11% of the total egg, Calcium 95%, Magnesium 1%, and Organic matter is 4%
What are some of the Proteins in Albumen (White)
Ovoalbumin, conalbumin, lysozyme, avidin, and ovomucin
How many proteins are identified in albumin
There are 12 proteins identified in albumin
What is the most abundant protein in albumin
The Most abundant: ovoalbumin
Which protein in albumin is easily denatured by heat
Which protein in albumin binds easily to metal and forms undesirable colors
Which protein in albumin hydrolyzes polysaccharides in cell bacteria and is protective against contamination
What protein in albumin contributes significantly to viscous, gel like texture of egg whites
What protein in albumin binds to biotin (b vitamin) in a native state
What are the Proteins in Yolk
Livetin, lipovitellin, and phosvitin
What is Livetin and what are its forms
Livetin is a protein found in egg yolk and its found in three forms: alpha, beta & gamma called lipovitellin and phosvitin
What is the composition yolk
We have lipids and Half of lipids which are Triglycerides and Phospholipids, lecithin, and other components like lutein, zeaxanthin, vitamin E, and choline, and cholesterol. Not to mention the protein livetin
What acts as an emulsifying agent in yolk
Lecithin: emulsifying properties
The yolk contains how many grams of cholesterol
Cholesterol: contains 250 mg cholesterol
* What is the controversial issue about Cholesterol
* What is the controversial issue about Cholesterol
* The Controversial issue about dietary cholesterol is We make more cholesterol than we eat and Numerous studies have not found the link between dietary cholesterol and plasma cholesterol
What was FRAMINGHAM study on eggs in 1982
"It was concluded that within the range of egg intake of this population differences in egg consumption were unrelated to blood cholesterol level or coronary heart disease incidence."
EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES of egg major studies/ trials proved what
It Concluded that dietary cholesterol is not related to increased
What is the American Heart Association Dietary Guidelines of 2000 say about dietary cholesterol
The recommended intake of dietary cholesterol remains the same - however, individuals may choose to eat one egg yolk daily, if the amount of foods high in dietary cholesterol in the rest of their diet is very limited
What is the problem with DIETARY RECOMMENDATIONS
* "One of the problems is that strong recommendations have often been made on very weak data. It may have been the best guess at the moment, but often the recommendations are repeated so many times that people forget they were rough guesses in the first place and come to think they are hard facts."
On the chart for dietary guidelines was their any recommendation for dietary cholesterol
Why are Egg Substitutes made
They are Made to avoid intake of cholesterol
What is the difference between egg substitutes and regular eggs
SUBSTITUTES Cannot separate yolk from white, Limited use in baked products, Not as good aroma, and Volume of cakes is less
How is Egg Quality determined
It is determined by the albumin index, the haught unit, and the yolk index
What is the albumin index
Albumen Index: Grading measurement to determine quality on basis of thick white.
What is the haught unit
Haught unit: correlates thick albumen height with egg white
What is the yolk index
Yolk index: ratio of height to width of yolk
What are the quality grades in eggs
The grades are AA,A, and B
How is AA egg quality determined
AA egg quality is determined by if its clean, is there unbroken shells, Air cell 1/8 inch or less in depth, White: clear and firm (72 haught units or higher), Yolk outline is slightly defined and practically free from defects
* How is A grade eggs determined
* A grade eggs are determined by Clean, unbroken shells, the Air cell is 3/16 inch or less in depth, the White is reasonably firm (60-72 haught units), and the Yolk outline is fairly defined, practically free from defects
* How is B grade eggs determined
* B grade eggs are determined by The eggs being Clean to very slightly stained shell, the Air cell is 3/8 inches in depth or less, the White is clear and may be slightly weak (31-69 haught units), and the Yolk outline is well defined, slightly enlarged and flattened. Some defects (not serious)
What are the health hazards for eggs
* Eggs Provide excellent medium for growth of microorganisms. The known microorganism is salmonella enterditis
* What is Salmonella enteriditis:
* Salmonella enterditis is Incorporated into yolk when egg is being formed and is the Potential source of food borne illness
How do you Preserve Eggs
Eggs are Easily contaminated so you must stress Precaution in handling and storage pasteurization, drying, and preservation at cooler temperatures is necessary
What are the conditions for the Pasteurization of eggs
Pasteurize 61°C for 3.5 min
* What are the conditions for Drying the egg
* Apply spray drying and when this occurs the Proportion of components easily changed and this can Glucose to be eliminated and this avoids browning
* What are the condition for the Preservation of Eggs and what does it cause
Freezing is the recommendation of preservation. In freezing conditions White eggs perform very well, but egg yolks don't they form a gel that is viscous and unsatisfactory
What are THE FORGOTTEN POSITIVES of eggs
Eggs are a High quality in protein that contains Essential vitamins and minerals, Carotenoids, Choline, Satiety, glycemic index, Affordability, and Convenience
who should eat eggs because of its beneficial components
* The Elderly, Low-income/poor families, Growing children, and people with Chronic illnesses
* Is egg high or low in protein quality
The High quality of protein in egg is in the yolk and in white
What has the protein content in eggs show in the elderly
* Has been shown to decrease muscle wasting in the elderly
*How many calories is two large eggs
* What is the nutrient density in eggs
* 6% food energy 20% protein 53% essential aa 30% riboflavin 12% vitamin A16% vitamin B12 12% folate 12% vitamin D16%
phosphorous 8% vitamin B6 34% selenium8% iron 8% zinc6% vitamin E
* WHAT IS CHOLINE and where does it come from ?
* Egg lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) is made up of glycerol, fatty acids, phosphate and choline. Choline is important in nerve cell transmission, source of acetylcholine. Choline Plays important roles in brain development, memory and Alzheimer's disease
* How many grams does of choline does an egg have
* A large egg has 215 mg choline
* Where can you find most of the choline in the egg
* Choline is concentrated in the yolk
* What is the necessary daily intake of choline
* Choline AI is 550 mg/day for males and 425 mg/day for females. THERE IS A Increased intake recommended during pregnancy and lactation
* How can you quickly get your AI value of choline
2 eggs provide almost 100% of AI value
* What is the importance of choline in the development of the fetus
During Pregnancy a large amounts of choline delivered to fetus and newborns have high plasma choline levels (7-fold). Also in Lactation there is high choline content in breast milk
* What is the benefits of Choline
Choline is Implicated in cognitive function and it is known to have the Potential to prevent Alzheimer's disease
* What has the studies shown about dietary lutein and zeaxanrhin
Studies indicate that dietary lutein and zeaxanthin help preserve the health of the aging eye against macular degeneration and cataracts. Addition of 1.3 egg yolks per day to the diets of 11 middle-aged subjects: increased plasma lutein [38%]increased plasma zeaxanthin [128%]
* What did the beaver dam eye study show on the comparison of EGGS AND CATARACTS
Data from the Beaver Dam Eye Study indicated that egg consumption was inversely associated with cataract risk in participants who were younger than 65 when the study started. Relative risk of cataracts was .4 for people with highest egg consumption versus a risk of 1.0 for those with the lowest intake
* What is the importance of Lutein and zeazanthin from eggs in the diet
Its Highly bioavailable in Eggs, and studies Have shown to decrease oxidative stress and also to Protect against inflammation
What is the significants between EGGS & WEIGHT LOSS
Potential role of eggs in a weight loss diet due to effects on glycemic index and satiety they did a study of people who mostly consumed carbs and people who mostly consumed eggs for breakfast. The did a macoruntrient based analysis on this and they both have about the same amount of calories, egg has more fat, bread has more carbs, and eggs have more protein, but people who eat carbs tend to eat more and get hungry faster so they eat more calories. People who have a more protein based diet tend to eat less and this contributes to weight loss more you are less hungry for the rest of the day
* What are the Functional Properties of Eggs
The Functional Properties of Eggs are is it is used for A Coloring agent, and Emulsifier, a Thickening agent and also a Texturizing agent
* How is eggs a Coloring agent
It is a coloring agent by the Carotenoid pigments that it has like lutein and zeaxanthin
How are eggs good at Emulsification
It is good at emulsification because of eggs Natural oil in water emulsion and Lecithin is a key component in emulsification
How are eggs a good Thickening agent and what is that property used in
Eggs are a good thickening agent when making Custards, Cooked salad dressings, and Pie fillings and cream puddings
* How do eggs become a Thickening agent
The Proteins in egg whites coagulate at 60°C and They lose ability to flow at 65 degrees Celsius (is no added ingredients) which causes the Egg yolk proteins to become more resistant. The Rapid heating increases coagulation temperature and Eggs coagulate faster than custards
* What are some Applications for Thickening
Custards, cooked salad dressing and sauces, and pie filling and cream puddings.
* What are custards
Custards are Sweetened milk mixtures thickened with eggs
* What does certain custards require
Stirred custard requires agitation and Baked custard require no agitation
* What are cooked salad dressings and sauces
Cooked salad dressings and sauces are made by having the Starch added first and it Requires higher temperature for gel formation and the Egg proteins coagulate at lower temperature
* What are pie fillings and cream pudding
Pie Fillings and Cream Puddings are Use of starch and egg protein that are Need to form a soft gel when cooled, Inadequate heating can lead to thinning and this is Due to action of alpha amylase
* What is the process of cooking eggs cooked in the shell
For Eggs Cooked in the shell has a Firmness influenced by the final Temperature. The Preferred method in cooking an egg like this is Cover the eggs with water then Heat the water to a boiling then Let eggs sit in water for 15 to 17 min with no additional heating
* What is the method of cooking eggs out of the shell
For Cooking eggs out of the shell require five min in boiling water to destroy Salmonella.
* What are the different kinds of Fried eggs:
There are Sunnyside up: 7 min at 121 Celsius uncovered, Scrambled eggs: 1 min at 121 degrees Celsius and The temperature is used to destroy the salmonella
* What are the different kinds of Foams and Meringues
for foms ther are yolk foams and there are whit foams and for meringues there are
* What are Yolk Foams and what are they used for
Yolk foams are Utilized in sponge cakes and omelets
* What are White Foams and what are they utilized for
White foams are Needed to be stable and have a good volume
* How do you determine the stability of white foams
To determine Stability you have to measure drainage of liquid from a given quantity of foam
What does good volume consist of in white foams
In white foams Good volume consist of a large amount of thin white and the Extended beating reduces volume
* What is Meringue
Meringue is Egg white foam that contains sugar of the amount of 2tsp for soft meringue and 4 tsp for hard meringue.
* What are the Problems with Meringues
The problems with meringues are with weeping and with beading
* What is weeping
Weeping is the draining of liquid from soft meringue
* What is beading
Beading is the Collection of small drops on surface of the meringue and it Result of over-coagulation of protein Fats and oils
* What are Lipids
Lipid are Non-polar, water insoluble compounds and they are composed of carbon, hydrogen and small amounts of oxygen
* What are some different types of lipids
You have your Triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesterol
* What are the two key components of Triglycerides
The Two key components of triglycerides are glycerol and fatty acids
* what is the structure of Glycerol
What are the component of a Fatty Acid
* How do fatty acids bind to glycerol
Fatty acids esterify to glycerol to form Triglycerides.
* What is important in fatty acid in food preparation
Fatty Acids in molecule determine physical characteristics such as Flow, deformation (important for food preparation)
* What are Flow Properties
Flow properties are Related to chain length and a degree of unsaturation
* Why are oils fluid and fats are solid?
Because oil are unsaturated Fatty acids
* What is a Saturated Fatty Acid
Organic acids containing all the hydrogens they can possibly hold
* What are Unsaturated fatty acid
Unsaturated fatty acids contain a double bond between two carbons related to less number of hydrogens
* What is a Double bond
A double bond is the Linkage between two carbons that can be broken down and hydrogens added.
* What are the Fatty Acids that contain (18C)
Stearic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid.
* What is Stearic Acid
Its a saturated 18-C fatty acid
* What is Oleic Acid
It is a monounsaturated 18-C fatty acid it is in the mediteranead diet
* What is Linoleic Acid:
Linoleic acid is a essential fatty acid (18-C) containing two double bonds can have the capability to be oxidized
* What is Linolenic Acid
It is a fatty acid (18-C) containing three double bonds
* What is Elaidic Acid:
This is a trans fatty acid (18-C) unsaturated with hydrogens on opposite side of carbon otherwise identical to oleic acid and oleic acid is trans elaidic is bad for your health oleic is good
* What is the Differences between Cis and Trans Fatty Acids
cis has hydrogen on the same side and trans has hydrogen on opposite sides
* what are the Structures of Fats
The structures of fats are monoglycerides, diglycerides and triglycerides.
* What are Monoglyceride:
This is a Simple fat that contains only one fatty acid esterified to the glycerol
* What are Diglyceride:
this is a Simple fat containing two fatty acids esterified to glycerol
* What are Triglyceride:
This is a Simple fat containing three fatty acids esterified to glycerol
* What are the Different ways to present triglycerides
There are the E formation and the Fork formation and the chair formation .
* What is the Melting point of fats
This is the The temperature at which the crystals of a solid fat melt
* What are the Crystallinity of Solid Fats and how do they come about
Solid fats are a mixture of crystals of fat in oil the Nature of crystals influences usefulness in food preparation the Fork form is well suited to form crystal matrix
* In Fat Crystals how are they linked together
Molecules are linked to one another by Van der Waals forces
* What are Forms of Fat Crystals
There are alpha, beta prime, intermediate and beta
* What are Alpha crystals:
Alpha crystals are large and unstable
* Beta prime:
Beta prime crystals are a Larger crystalline form, stable, smooth these are the best
intermediat crystals are Slightly coarse from beta prime melted and re-crystalized
Beta crystals are extremely coarse and undesirable
* What is Hydrogenation:
Hydrogenation is the Addition of hydrogen to an unsaturated fatty acid and it Takes place in the presence of a catalyst to raise the melting point
* what does researcher say is better trans fatty acid or trans fatty acids
researchers say the trans fatty acids in margarine is than saturated fat, researchers say
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