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rules France while Louis XIV was a child. Nobles hated him b/c he raised taxes and strengthened the power of the king. when he died, Louis took power
Catholic, ruled France behind the scenes for Louis XIII because he was a weak king. raised power of the monarchy by weakening the power of the nobles and saying Protestant cities couldn't have walls
Jean Baptiste Colbert
An economic adviser to Louis XIV; he supported mercantilism and tried to make France economically self-sufficient. Brought prosperity to France.
Tudor (England), Started the Church of England in order to obtain a divorce, had 6 wives, 3 children
Tudor (England), daughter of Henry VIII's first wife, Catherine, married Philip of Spain, Catholic, bloody, took throne after Edward, killed lots of Protestants, burned 280 People at the Stake
Tudor (England), first to rule England independently, granted religious toleration, never married, defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588,England became wealthy under her
Stuarts (England), declared he had the divine right, struggled with Parliament over money for his court and foreign wars, offended Puritans by refusing to make Puritan reforms
Stuarts (England), his struggles with money led to the forced signing of Petition of Right, dissolution of Parliament, passage of laws to limit royal power, efforts to arrest leaders of Parliament, and The English Civil War
Stuarts (England), parliament invited him to rule and passed habeas corpus, his power was a result of restoration
Stuarts (England), ruled for 3 years, wanted catholics in high office (illegal), overthrown by daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange
William and Mary
came to power through the glorious revolution, they governed as partners and they made England a constitutional monarchy and drafted the English Bill of Rights
Hapsburg (Spain), inherits Spain and was in control of the Holy Roman Empire. Split territory b/t Philip II and Ferdinand after he retired to a monastery
Hapsburg (Spain), son of Charles V, made Spain wealthy, Catholic, opposed Ottoman Empire, built Spanish Armada to punish protestant England, lost 1588. Period of Art revival. Money problems (inflation, taxes, purchases outside county)
Hapsburg (Austria), father of Maria Theresa, made the Pragmatic Sanction that stated Maria Theresa would rule
Hapsburg (Austria), daughter of Charles VI who gained her throne through Pragmatic Sanction. She fought Prussia again in the Seven Years' War also known as the French and Indian War. Maria Theresa decided to ally with France through diplomatic revolution then with Russia. Prussia then allied with Britain. It was the first time Russia was involved. Prussia attacked Saxony and the war began. No territory was exchanged in Europe but the colonies changed.
Bourbon (France), Catholic Frenchmen didn't accept him b/c he was protestant, switched to Catholicism, issues the edict of Nantes, devoted to restoring peace and prosperity, stabbed to death
Bourbon (France), "I am the State", most powerful ruler in French history, nicknamed the Sun King (selfish), ruled with Cardinal Mazarin, at age 23, ruled independently, ruled from Versailles, weakened the power of nobles and increased the power of intendents
Romanov (Russia), liberated Russia from the Mongols, centrlized the Russian Government, added territory around Moscow
Romanov (Russia), came to power at 3, Ivan the terrible, struggled for power with Boyars, seized power at 16 and had himself crowned Czar, won great victories, added territory, wrote a code of laws. Wife Anastasia dies and he accused boyars of poisoning her and turned against them. He organized a police force and killed his son and lots of boyars
Peter the Great
Romanov (Russia), was really tall, wanted a war water port for Russia, age 24 sole ruler of Russia, He went on the Grand Embassy as a peasant (a tour of western Europe) to learn about europe and industrial techniques, goal was westernization,
Catherine the Great
Romanov (Russia) like Peter, she fought for a port on the Black Sea, absolute ruler in Russia in 1762-1796
Frederick the Great
Hohenzollerns (Prussia) practical ruler who focused on Military, he encouraged religious toleration and legal reform. He and Maria Theresa fought many wars. The fought over the Austrian land of Silesia in the War of Austrian Succession. Austria allied with Hungary and England and Prussia with France
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