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Cardinal Mazarin

rules France while Louis XIV was a child. Nobles hated him b/c he raised taxes and strengthened the power of the king. when he died, Louis took power

Cardinal Richelieu

Catholic, ruled France behind the scenes for Louis XIII because he was a weak king. raised power of the monarchy by weakening the power of the nobles and saying Protestant cities couldn't have walls

Jean Baptiste Colbert

An economic adviser to Louis XIV; he supported mercantilism and tried to make France economically self-sufficient. Brought prosperity to France.

Henry VIII

Tudor (England), Started the Church of England in order to obtain a divorce, had 6 wives, 3 children

Mary I

Tudor (England), daughter of Henry VIII's first wife, Catherine, married Philip of Spain, Catholic, bloody, took throne after Edward, killed lots of Protestants, burned 280 People at the Stake

Elizabeth I

Tudor (England), first to rule England independently, granted religious toleration, never married, defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588,England became wealthy under her

James I

Stuarts (England), declared he had the divine right, struggled with Parliament over money for his court and foreign wars, offended Puritans by refusing to make Puritan reforms

Charles I

Stuarts (England), his struggles with money led to the forced signing of Petition of Right, dissolution of Parliament, passage of laws to limit royal power, efforts to arrest leaders of Parliament, and The English Civil War

Charles II

Stuarts (England), parliament invited him to rule and passed habeas corpus, his power was a result of restoration

James II

Stuarts (England), ruled for 3 years, wanted catholics in high office (illegal), overthrown by daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange

William and Mary

came to power through the glorious revolution, they governed as partners and they made England a constitutional monarchy and drafted the English Bill of Rights

Charles V

Hapsburg (Spain), inherits Spain and was in control of the Holy Roman Empire. Split territory b/t Philip II and Ferdinand after he retired to a monastery

Philip II

Hapsburg (Spain), son of Charles V, made Spain wealthy, Catholic, opposed Ottoman Empire, built Spanish Armada to punish protestant England, lost 1588. Period of Art revival. Money problems (inflation, taxes, purchases outside county)

Charles VI

Hapsburg (Austria), father of Maria Theresa, made the Pragmatic Sanction that stated Maria Theresa would rule

Maria Theresa

Hapsburg (Austria), daughter of Charles VI who gained her throne through Pragmatic Sanction. She fought Prussia again in the Seven Years' War also known as the French and Indian War. Maria Theresa decided to ally with France through diplomatic revolution then with Russia. Prussia then allied with Britain. It was the first time Russia was involved. Prussia attacked Saxony and the war began. No territory was exchanged in Europe but the colonies changed.

Henry IV

Bourbon (France), Catholic Frenchmen didn't accept him b/c he was protestant, switched to Catholicism, issues the edict of Nantes, devoted to restoring peace and prosperity, stabbed to death

Louis XIII

Bourbon (France), weak king who appointed Cardinal Richelieu to aid him

Louis XIV

Bourbon (France), "I am the State", most powerful ruler in French history, nicknamed the Sun King (selfish), ruled with Cardinal Mazarin, at age 23, ruled independently, ruled from Versailles, weakened the power of nobles and increased the power of intendents

Ivan III

Romanov (Russia), liberated Russia from the Mongols, centrlized the Russian Government, added territory around Moscow

Ivan IV

Romanov (Russia), came to power at 3, Ivan the terrible, struggled for power with Boyars, seized power at 16 and had himself crowned Czar, won great victories, added territory, wrote a code of laws. Wife Anastasia dies and he accused boyars of poisoning her and turned against them. He organized a police force and killed his son and lots of boyars

Peter the Great

Romanov (Russia), was really tall, wanted a war water port for Russia, age 24 sole ruler of Russia, He went on the Grand Embassy as a peasant (a tour of western Europe) to learn about europe and industrial techniques, goal was westernization,

Catherine the Great

Romanov (Russia) like Peter, she fought for a port on the Black Sea, absolute ruler in Russia in 1762-1796

Frederick the Great

Hohenzollerns (Prussia) practical ruler who focused on Military, he encouraged religious toleration and legal reform. He and Maria Theresa fought many wars. The fought over the Austrian land of Silesia in the War of Austrian Succession. Austria allied with Hungary and England and Prussia with France

Edward VI

Tudor (England), inherited the throne at age 9, died at 14, had conflict with sister Mary over religion

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