Terms in this set (29)
Compact Bone Tissue
hard, dense, rigid, strong, and relatively heavy. Forms the outer shell of most bones in the human skeleton.
Cancellous Bone Tissue
spongy texture, lightweight structure. Spaces in the tissues contain red bone marrow where blood cells are formed.
Consists of a shaft of compact bone tissue and two spongy extremities called epiphyses made of Cancellous bone tissue. Example: Femur, Humerus.
Lightweight short irregular bones, consisting of cancellous bone tissue surrounded by a thin layer of compact bone tissue. Example: Carpals, Tarsals.
Plate like layers of compact and Cancellous bone tissue make these bones strong yet light weight- protective with flat surfaces for muscle attachment. Example: Frontal.
Oval shaped bone located in tendons. Example: Patella, Hyoid (base of the tongue).
Mass of Cancellous bone tissue surrounded by a thin layer of compact bone tissue. Example: Vertebrae.
No movement. Example- Skull, pelvic girdle.
Slightly moveable joint
moves by compression of the cartilage. Example- spine
Freely moveable joint (Synovial Joint)
Varied degrees of movement depending on sub-type. There are 5 different types of freely moveable joints; ball and socket, hinge, pivot, gliding, saddle.
Ball and Socket Joint
Most moveable of all joints. Example- shoulder and hip joints.
Bones glide over each other; least moveable of joints. Example- tarsals and carpals, vertebras.
Movement in one direction only. Example- elbow, knee, ankle, phalanges.
Movement around two axes. Example- thumb, wrist.
Movement around one axes only and a rotary movement. Example- first two cervical vertebras allowing head to rotate.
An exaggerated outward (outward the posterior) curvature of the thoracic spine.
A sideways curvature of the spine.
An exaggerated inward (towards the anterior) curvature of the lumbar spine.
Causes of postural deformities
• Congenital- those which are present at birth or are hereditary.
• Environmental- Sitting and standing incorrectly can cause long-term damage to the spine.
• Traumatic- Caused by an accident.
Inflammation of the joints. It can be acute or chronic:
inflammation of one joint.
inflammation of many joints.
Symptoms are heat, redness, and visible inflammation, severe pain.
Involves loss of cartilage, deposition of bone tissue around the joint margins and lesser degrees of pain and inflammation.
May be an injury to a joint or, if widespread, part of the aging process. Chronic arthritis or degenerative type- cartilage of joint breaks down; usually affects weight bearing joints like knees, feet and back.
Rheumatoid Arthritis (type of poly-arthritis)
An autoimmune disease that attacks the synovial membranes and goes on to degrade and malform the articular surfaces of the bones. Acute and chronic phases with varying degrees of damage and deformity.
A form of arthritis that can occur in any part of the body but often affects the big toe. Caused by disposition of uric acid crystals within the joint capsule and cartilage. Attacks of acute gouty arthritis, chronic destruction of joints.
Caused by calcium deficiency; accelerated bone loss especially in post-menopausal women. It has the effect of porosity and brittleness of bones.
Stress is any factor which affects mental or physical health. When stressed, muscle tension increases and this causes poor posture, stiff joints and problems with the spinal vertebrae.
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