because electron pairs repel, shapes adjust so that valence electrons are as far apart as possible
like atoms bond and share equally
Polar Covalent Bond
2 atoms of different elements and electrons share equally
molecule that has two poles
weak force caused by the motion of electrons, more electrons=more strength
polar molecules are attracted to each other, positive attracts to negative
hydrogen is covalently bonded to a very electronegative atom is also weakly bonded to an unshared pair of another electronegative atom
inward force that tends to minimize the surface area of a liquid
wetting agent such as soap or detergent
substance that interferes with hydrogen bonds
Heat of Vaporization
amount of energy needed to convert i gram of a substance from liquid to a gas at the boiling point
amount of energy removed in order to convert 1 gram of a substance from a gas to a liquid at the boiling point
samples containing dissolved substances
process of something dissolving
compounds that conduct electric current in aqueous solutions or molten state
compounds that do not conduct electric current in aqueous solutions or molten state
Water of Hydration
water in crystal
compound containing water of hydration
losing the water of hydration to the air because the vapor pressure is higher than that of the water vapor in the air
compounds that remove moisture from the air
hygroscopic substances used as drying agents
substances that remove enough water from the air to dissolve completely and form solutions
mixtures from particles settle out upon standby
scattering of light in all directions
heterogeneous mixtures containing particles that are intermediate in size
chaotic movement of colloidal particles
colloidal dispersions of a liquid
a pair of valence electrons that is not shared between atoms
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