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VSEPR Theory

because electron pairs repel, shapes adjust so that valence electrons are as far apart as possible

Nonpolar Bond

like atoms bond and share equally

Polar Covalent Bond

2 atoms of different elements and electrons share equally


molecule that has two poles

Dispersion Forces

weak force caused by the motion of electrons, more electrons=more strength

Dipole Interactions

polar molecules are attracted to each other, positive attracts to negative

Hydrogen Bonds

hydrogen is covalently bonded to a very electronegative atom is also weakly bonded to an unshared pair of another electronegative atom

Surface Tension

inward force that tends to minimize the surface area of a liquid


wetting agent such as soap or detergent

Wetting Agent

substance that interferes with hydrogen bonds

Heat of Vaporization

amount of energy needed to convert i gram of a substance from liquid to a gas at the boiling point


amount of energy removed in order to convert 1 gram of a substance from a gas to a liquid at the boiling point


samples containing dissolved substances


dissolving medium


dissolved particles


process of something dissolving


compounds that conduct electric current in aqueous solutions or molten state


compounds that do not conduct electric current in aqueous solutions or molten state

Water of Hydration

water in crystal


compound containing water of hydration


losing the water of hydration to the air because the vapor pressure is higher than that of the water vapor in the air


compounds that remove moisture from the air


hygroscopic substances used as drying agents

Deliquescent Compounds

substances that remove enough water from the air to dissolve completely and form solutions


mixtures from particles settle out upon standby

Tyndall Effect

scattering of light in all directions


heterogeneous mixtures containing particles that are intermediate in size

Brownian Motion

chaotic movement of colloidal particles


colloidal dispersions of a liquid

Unshared Pair

a pair of valence electrons that is not shared between atoms

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