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a systematic, organized series of steps that ensures maximum objectivity and consistency in researching a problem
transformation of an abstract concept into indicators that are observable and measurable
the relationship between a condition or variable and a particular consequence with one event leading to each other
the variable in a casual relationship that causes or influences a change in a second variable
the variable in a casual relationship that is subject to the influence of another variable
a relationship between two variables in which a change in one coincides with a change in the other
a sample for which every member of an entire population has an equal chance of being selected
a factor that is held constant to test the relative impact of an independent variable
a study, generally in the form of an interview or questionnaire, that provides researchers with information about how people think and act
the midpoint, or number that divides a series of values into two groups of equal numbers of values
research that relies on what is seen in field or naturalistic settings more than on statistical data
a research technique in which an investigator collects information through direct participation and/or by closely watching a group or community
the subjects in an experiment who are exposed to an independent variable introduced by a researcher
the subjects in an experiment who are not introduced to the independent variable by the researcher
a variety of research techniques that make use of previously collected and publicly accessible information and data
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