PBS Chapter 1
Terms in this set (84)
The application of the principles of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to clinical medicine.
The group in an experiment where the independent variable being tested is not applied so that it may serve as a standard for comparison against the experimental group where the independent variable is applied.
-you get results that are measurable
The measurable effect, outcome, or response in which the research is interested.
A research study conducted to determine the effect that one variable has upon another variable.
The application of scientific knowledge to questions of civil and criminal law.
Clear prediction of the anticipated results of an experiment.
The variable that is varied or manipulated by the researcher.
Control group where conditions produce a negative outcome. Negative control groups help identify outside influences which may be present that were not accounted for when the procedure was created.
Personal Protective Equipment
Specialized clothing or equipment, worn by an employee for protection against infectious materials (as defined by OSHA).
Group expected to have a positive result, allowing the researcher to show that the experimental set up was capable of producing results.
A component of nucleic acids, energy-carrying molecules such as ATP, and certain coenzymes. Chemically, it is a purine base.
Any of the usually linear bodies in the cell nucleus that contain the genetic material.
A component of nucleic acids that carries hereditary information in DNA and RNA in cells. Chemically, it is a pyrimidine base.
A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins.
The separation of nucleic acids or proteins, on the basis of their size and electrical charge, by measuring their rate of movement through an electrical field in a gel.
A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses).
A component of nucleic acids that carries hereditary information in DNA and RNA in cells. Chemically, it is a purine base.
Something spiral in form.
A simplified version of something complex used, for example, to analyze and solve problems or make predictions.
A building block of DNA, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
A degradative enzyme that recognizes specific nucleotide sequences and cuts up DNA.
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLPs)
Differences in DNA sequence on homologous chromosomes that can result in different patterns of restriction fragment lengths (DNA segments resulting from treatment with restriction enzymes).
A component of nucleic acid that carries hereditary information in DNA in cells. Chemically, it is a pyrimidine base.
An examination of the body after death usually with such dissection as will expose the vital organs for determining the cause of death.
A document showing all the sources used to research information.
A written reference to a specific work (book, article, dissertation, report, musical composition, etc.) by a particular author or creator which identifies the document in which the work may be found.
The act of creating citations to identify resources used in writing a work.
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
A comprehensive set of standards and practices designed to give patients specific rights regarding their personal health information.
A physician who performs an autopsy when death may be accidental or violent. He or she may also serve in some jurisdictions as the coroner.
What are the basics of keeping a scientific lab notebook (notes)
Can't use red pen, have witness and our signature, make sure dated, crossout and write your initials if you screw up
What can be done at a scene of a mysterious death to help reconstruct what happened (forensic science basics) ?
(interview, examine, photograph, sketch, and collect the evidence)
How do the clues (blood types, fingerprints (know basic fingerprint types: shoe prints, hair, blood spatter patterns, etc) found at a scene of a mysterious death help investigators determine what might have occurred and help identify or exonerate potential suspects?
A. Arch (Plain / tented)B. Loop (radial / ulnar)C. Whorl
They help by determining many different aspects of who's shoeprint, hair, or blood it was or how the blood splattered
Presumptive tests vs. Confirmatory tests
Presumptive tests, such as colorimetric tests, indicate which type of substance is present but cannot specifically identify the substance.
Confirmatory tests, such as gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, are specific tests that can determine the exact identity of the substance
Experimental design basics (powerpoint) know how to determine Ind vs dep variable
Independent is the variable tested while dependent is the outcome and is determined by the independent variable
Algor mortis (cooling) formula Glaister Equation:
98.4 - measured rectal temperature = approximate hours since death 1.5
How are bloodstain patterns left at a crime scene used (shape?, size?) to help investigators establish the events that took place during a crime?
results of blood spatter lab
see blood spatter lab
What is DNA?
DNA is what makes you who you are and gives you your genetic code
Be able to draw a stretch of double stranded DNA with all parts labeled like we did in notes
Know which nucleotides are purines and which are pyrimidines (which are single rings?, which are double rings?)
A and G are purines and double-ringed, while T and C are pyrimidines and single-ringed
How do scientists isolate DNA in order to study it? (soap role?, alcohol role?)
Soap: when soap comes close to the cell it captures the lipids and proteins
Alcohol: isolates it and makes it a solid
How does DNA differ from person to person?
DNA differs in certain sequences where in one person there might by an A while in the other there could be a G.
How can tools of molecular biology be used to compare the DNA of two individuals? Know notes about steps in DNA fingerprinting
1. Cut DNA with restriction enzymes
2. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) clones DNA entirely in ultro
~You need to heat DNA to separate the strands
~ Cool to allow and add primers to hydrogen bonds
~DNA polymerase adds nucleotides to the 3' end of each primer (extends copies of DNA) (replicates)
3. Make gel electrophocesis
What are restriction enzymes? Where do they come from?
Restriction enzymes are bacteria that cut DNA at unique sequences
What are restriction fragment length polymorphisms?
Polymorphisms are the sequence is the same forwards and back
What is gel electrophoresis and how can the results of this technique be interpreted?
know def. of cause of death and manner of death. There are five legally defined manners of death:
Natural Accident Homicide Suicide Undetermined
Cause of death: conditions resulting in ones death
Manner of death: category of death
Describe how an autopsy is performed and the types of information it provides to officials regarding the manner and cause of death.
Recognize that a variety of biomedical science professionals are involved in crime scene analysis and determination of manner of death in mysterious death cases.
Interpret information from an autopsy report to predict the manner of death.
Ex. Anna's Case
Explain the importance of confidentiality when dealing with patients, and describe the major patient protections written into the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA).
People over 18 have rights to their medical information unless given consent of the illness they had needs to be recorded for certain reasons, people under 18 and their parents or family are allowed to their records
Analyze patient confidentiality scenarios.
What is an autopsy and how can it be used to determine the cause of death?
Autopsies help to get an inside look of the body and find the cause of death by looking at each organ and part of the body, This also helps discover the manner of death
How can the manner of death be determined?
It can be determined by looking at signs of injury and how they had happened or if they were forced or pre-mortem
Why is confidentiality of patient information important?
It's important so you don't just give away their information to anyone or if they wanted that information to be kept secret for certain reasons
Who should keep patient information confidential?
The doctor and the people working the case
Is there ever a time when patient confidentiality should be broken?
What biomedical science professionals are involved in crime scene analysis and determination of manner of death?
Blood analyst, Forensic DNA analyst, coroner and EM. Coroner doesn't have to be medically certified and is requested by the government while the medical examiner is medically qualified.
Know body system organizer info + level of organization to organisms
(organelles, cells, tissues,organs, org systems, organism)
Restriction fragment length polymorphisms: serves as a genetic marker for a particular location in the genome
Key Structures: Lungs, nasal cavity, trachea, bronchus
Functions: Assists with gas exchange with the external environment, keeps blood supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide
Lymphatic System and Immunity
Key Structures: Lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, bone marrow
Functions: filters fluid in the body; mounts the attack against foreign substances in the body
Key Structures: Bones, Joints
Functions: Protects and supports body organs; provides a framework the muscles can use to cause movement; stores minerals
Key Structures: Kidney, bladder, ureter, urethra
Functions: Eliminates waste from the body; regulates water balance of the blood
Key Structures: Skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, smooth muscle
Functions: moves the body and moves substances around the body; maintains posture; produces heat
Key Structures: skin, hair, nails
Functions: forms the body's external covering; protects deeper tissue from injury; helps regulate body temperature
Key Structures: heart, blood vessels (veins, arteries, and capillaries
Functions: Pumps blood around body; transports oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and waste
Key Structures: Brain, spinal cord, sensory receptors, nerves
Functions: Responds to internal and external changes by activating an appropriate response; processes information
Key Structures: Oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver
Functions: Breaks down food into its nutrient molecules; absorbs nutrients; rids the body of waste
Key Structures: adrenal gland, pituitary gland, ovary, testis
Functions: secrets hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and metabolism by body cells
chemical test being done in the problem above are described as
DNA is cut at specific nucleotide sequences by
scientists are able to produce millions of copies of a specific DNA sequence from a small amount of DNA through the process of
Polymerase chain reaction
In DNA profiling by gel electrophoresis, DNA is separated on the basis of
number of base pairs
Cytosine makes up 38% of nucleotide in a sample of DNA in an organism. Approximately what percentage of the nucleotides in this sample will be adenine?
purpose of the detergent
dissolve the cell and nuclear membrane
found between two DNA molecules in double stranded DNA (holds two strands together)
DNA is made up of
system is associated with transport and delivery
a group of similar cells that perform a single function is called a
Which organ is involved with the maturation of T cells (immune cells)
which end of a gel should be placed near the negative electrode in electrophoresis
the end by the wells
which organ system plays a crucial role in body temperature regulation
which of the following is not part of the respiratory system