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chapter 4 rock vocab

rock-forming mineral

a group of 20 minerals that make up most of the rocks in the earth's crust


a henerally light-colored rock that has high silica content


a dark colored rock that is low in silica


particles of minerals or other rocks


the look and feel of a rock's surface

igneous rock

the type of rock that forms from the cooling of magma or lava

sedimentary rock

rock that forms when particles of other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together

metamorphic rock

the rock that forms when an existing rock is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions

extrusive rock

igneous rock formed from lava that erupted onto earth's surface

intrusive rock

igneous rock that formed when magma hardened beneath earth's surface


the word describing the thin, flat layering found in most metamorphic rocks


small, solid pieces of material that come from rocks or living things


when running water, wind, or ice loosen and carry away fragments of rock


the process by which sediment settles out of the water or wind carrying it


the process that presses sediments together


the process in which dissolved minerals crystallize an glue particles of sediment together

clastic rock

a sedimentary rock that forms when rock fragments are squeezed together

organic rock

rock that forms where the remains of plants and animals areposited in thick layers

chemical rock

rock formed when minerals that are dissolved in a solution crystallize

rock cycle

a series of processes on earth's surface and in the crust and mantle that slowly change rocks frome one kind to another

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