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20 terms

ch. 4 (rocks)- science final vocab

chapter 4 rock vocab
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rock-forming mineral
a group of 20 minerals that make up most of the rocks in the earth's crust
granite
a henerally light-colored rock that has high silica content
basalt
a dark colored rock that is low in silica
grains
particles of minerals or other rocks
texture
the look and feel of a rock's surface
igneous rock
the type of rock that forms from the cooling of magma or lava
sedimentary rock
rock that forms when particles of other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together
metamorphic rock
the rock that forms when an existing rock is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions
extrusive rock
igneous rock formed from lava that erupted onto earth's surface
intrusive rock
igneous rock that formed when magma hardened beneath earth's surface
foliated
the word describing the thin, flat layering found in most metamorphic rocks
sediment
small, solid pieces of material that come from rocks or living things
erosion
when running water, wind, or ice loosen and carry away fragments of rock
deposition
the process by which sediment settles out of the water or wind carrying it
compaction
the process that presses sediments together
cementation
the process in which dissolved minerals crystallize an glue particles of sediment together
clastic rock
a sedimentary rock that forms when rock fragments are squeezed together
organic rock
rock that forms where the remains of plants and animals areposited in thick layers
chemical rock
rock formed when minerals that are dissolved in a solution crystallize
rock cycle
a series of processes on earth's surface and in the crust and mantle that slowly change rocks frome one kind to another