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27 terms

Nutrition CH 2

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nutrient density
characteristic used to determine nutritional quality by comparing its vitamin or mineral content with the amount of calories it provides
energy density
measurement that describes the calorie content of a food; determined by comparing the calorie content with the weight of the food; food rich in calories but weighs little is energy dense ex nuts
nutritional state
determined by measurements of nutrients and their by-products on blood and urine
malnutrition
failing health resulting from long standing practices that do not coincide with nutritional needs
overnutrition
state in which nutritional intake exceeds the body's needs
undernutrition
failing health that results from long standing dietary intake that does not meet nutritional needs
desirable nutrition
state when body tissues have enough of the nutrient to support normal metabolic functions as well as surplus that can be used in time of need
subclinical
stage of a disease not severe enough to produce outward symptoms
anthropometric assessment
measurements of height, weight, skin fold thickness, and body circumference
biochemical assessment
measurements of biochemical functions related to a nutrients function
clinical assessment
examination of skin, eyes, tongue, hair loss, sense of touch, ability to cough and walk
dietary assessment
estimation of typical food choices relying on ones usual food intake or intake from the previous days
economic assessment
estimation of the ability of a person to purchase, transport, and cook food
heart attack
rapid fall in heart nutrition caused by reduced blood flow through the hearts vessels; vessels become blocked by cholesterol and other materials
Dietary reference intakes
term that describes nutrient needs
recommended dietary allowance RDA
recommended amount of a nutrient based on meeting the needs of nearly all (97%) of individuals in a particular age and gender group
adequate intake AI
used to set standards when there is no RDA; derived from the dietary intakes of people that appear to maintain nutritional health
estimated energy requirement EER
takes into account age, gender, height, weight, and physical activity to estimate ones calorie needs
tolerable upper intake level UL
highest amount of nutrient unlikely to cause adverse health effects in the long run
daily value DV
generic standard on food labels set to the highest RDA value in various age categories for a specific nutrient
scurvy
deficiency disease that results after a few weeks or months of a diet lacking vitamin C; bleeding on skin is an early sign
epidemiology
study of how disease rates vary among different population groups
animal model
study of disease in animals that duplicates human disease; used to understand more about human disease
food labels include...
product name, name and address of manufacturer, amount of product in package, ingredients listed in descending order by weight
good source
serving of the food contains 10-19% of daily value
low source
serving of the food contains less than 5% daily value
high source
contains 20% or more of the daily value