Science Ch. 1
Terms in this set (61)
Why are some scientific theories modified
To match more recent observations
What does an atomic theory explain?
It explains how elements differ from each other and how they combine together
What is the end goal of the process?
Proposing explanations based on the evidence
Why is the law of gravity a scientific law, not a scientific theory
Bc it has been proven to happen every time unless there is an interference
Without the ability to run controlled experiments, how do scientists draw conclusions?
They draw conclusions from observations and what they already know to develop a scientific explanation for what they observed
How do you design an experiment?
You can design an experiment that follows reliable scientific principles to test a hypothesis
Data that are collected using scientific process that describe particular observations.
Why do scientists look for patterns in their empirical evidence in order to make inferences and predict trends?
Patterns reveal a connection among all data. They carefully look for patterns in it that allow them to make inferences and predict trends
How did the loss of honeybee colonies affect the U.S. Economy?
The bees couldn't pollinate and the farmers crops couldn't grow so they couldn't make any money
What 2 general types of reasoning can scientific thinking be divided into?
Subjective and objective reasoning
What pseudoscience is discussed in this lesson? What is another pseudoscience the we discussed in class?
Astrology, palmistry,ESP, reflexology, dowsing, alchemy
When drawing a conclusion, what 2 steps do u need to do?
1. Examine the data objectively to see if they support or fail to support your hypothesis
2. Consider whether the data allow you to draw a conclusion at all based on the results
What is the middle phase of the scientific inquiry process?
Gathering evidence about the natural world
Why are repeated trials essential for drawing conclusions?
Conclusions that come from only one experiment are unreliable
What attitudes are important for scientists to have during a scientific investigation?
Curiosity, honesty, creativity, and open-mindedness, or the willingness to accept new ideas
A statement that describes what scientists expect to happen every time under a particular set of conditions
What do scientific investigations involve?
Collecting evidence in a scientific way and using that evidence to make inferences and to reach conclusions
What characterizes science and its methods?
An ordered approach to learning about the world
What kind of evidence is science based on?
Empirical evidence and well-reasoned interpretation of data
How are data and empirical evidence different?
Data refers to the type of info collected during a scientific investigation. Empirical evidence refers to the information that is collected in a precise, logical, and consistent way.
Why is our ability to observe the natural world improving?
Bc new technology improves our ability to observe the natural world.
Why is it crucial,to only have one independent variable in a controlled experiment
If your experiment were to have more than one independent variable, there would be no way to tell which variable influenced your result
What is technology?
The development of new instruments and methods to solve practical problems
What kind of evidence is pseudoscience based on?
Beliefs, but not evidence
An attitude of having doubt, it keeps scientists from accepting faulty ideas and may lead to new understandings
A set of beliefs that may make use of science but is not based on observinG, objective reasoning, or scientific evidence
What is the beginning of the scientific inquiry process?
Asking a question about the natural world
In the example of sour milk, what was the observation that lead to posing a question
The milk was sour
Why do researchers test a hypothesis
Researchers perform investigations and collect data that either supports or fails to support a hypothesis
Reasoning that is based on personal feelings or personal values
In science, what is a fact?
An observation or description that has been confirmed repeatedly
In the experiment of the milk, what was the independent variable?
The air temperature
A well tested explanation for a wide range of observations and experimental results
Facts, figures, and other evidence collected during a scientific investigation
Where do some questions originate?
They come from your experiences, observations, and natural curiosity
In the experiment of the milk, what was the dependent variable?
The time it took for the milk to sour
An error in the design of the experiment
A possible answer to a scientific question and explanation
A generalization that makes sense of observations by using logical reasoning
A scientific experiment in which only one variable is changed at a time
The factor that may change in response to the independent variable can also be call responding variable
One factor that is purposely changed to test a hypothesis it is sometimes called manipulated variable
An attempt by a different group of scientists to conduct the same experiment
The process of gathering evidence about the natural world and proposing explanations based on this evidence
What is the difference between a scientific law and a scientific theory?
Unlike a scientific theory, a scientific law describes an observed pattern in nature without attempting to explain it
What is the difference between inferring and predicting?
Inferring is explaining something that already happened based on prior knowledge and predicting is saying what is going to happen in the future
Using one or more of your senses to gather information
Deals with descriptions that cannot be expressed in numbers
Name six skills scienTists use to help them form and answer questions about the natural world
Observing, making models, classifying, inferring, predicting, and analyzing
Deals with numbers or amounts
How does making models help scientists observe
They help study things that can't be observed directly
When you explain or interpret things that you observe based on reasoning from your prior knowledge and from what you observe
What is the difference between quanitative and qualitative observations?
Quan deals with numbers and qual observations can't be expressed in numbers
Grouping together items that are alike in some way
A way of learning about the natural world knowledge gain through this exploration
Involves evaluating observations and data to reach a conclusion about them
Making a statement or a claim about what will happen in the future based on past experiences or evidence
What helps a scientific theory become more widely accepted?
As it is shown to explain more and more observations
A repetition of an experiment
What was the original theory to explain why dinosaurs became extinct
An asteroid hit earth 65 million years ago
Reasoning that is based on evidence