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Chapter 11 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (21)
An experiment manipulates factor levels to create treatments, randomly assigns subjects to these treatment levels, and then compares the responses of the subject groups across treatment levels
To be valid, an experiment must assign experimental units to treatment groups at random.
A variable whose levels are manipulated by the experimenter in an attempt to discover any effects that the factor levels may have on the response variable
A variable whose values are compared across difference treatments. In a randomized experiment, large response differences can be attributed to the effect of differences in treatment level.
Individuals on whom an experiment is performed. Usually called subjects or participants when they are human.
The specific values that the experimenter chooses for a factor are called levels of the factor.
The process applied to randomly assigned experimental units. Treatment are the different levels of the factor
principals of experimental design
Control aspects of the experiment that we know may have an effect on the response
Randomize subjects to treatments to even out the effects that we cannot control
Replicate over as many subjects as possible.
When an observation difference is too large for us to believe that it is likely to have occurred by chance, we consider the difference to be statistically significant.
The experimental units assigned to a baseline treatment level, or a placebo treatment. Their responses provide a basis for comparison.
Any individual associated with an experiment who is not aware of how subjects have been allocated to treatment groups is said to be blinded.
There are two main classes of individuals who can affect the outcome on and experiment
Those who could influence the results
Those who evaluate the results
When every individual in one of these groups is blinded, and experiment is said to be single-blinded. When everyone in both groups is blinded the experiment is double blinded.
A treatment known to have no effect, administered so that all groups experience the same conditions.
The tendency of many human subjects to show a response even when given a fake treatment.
When there are pre-existing differences among groups of experimental units, it is often a good idea to gather them together in blocks. By blocking, we isolate the differences so that we can see the effects of the treatments more clearly.
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