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the author's attitude toward the subject matter or audience

Figurative language

used for descriptive effect to imply ideas or emotions indirectly

Rhyme scheme

pattern of rhyme


A figure of speech in which a writer addresses an absent person, an inanimate object, or an idea as if it were present


A traditional English verse form that idealizes rural life

Point of view

The standpoint from which a poem is called


The use of words, phrases, or sentences that have similar grammatical structures


a comparison using like or as


an implied comparison


A lyric poem of fourteen lines; iambic pentameter; strict patterns of stanza divisions and rhymes

Three types or sonnets

Italian, English, and Spenserian

Rhyme scheme of an Italian sonnet

Abbaabba and cdecde or cdccdc

Rhyme scheme of an English sonnet

Abab cdcd efef gg

Rhyme scheme of a Spenserian sonnet

Abab bcbc cdcd ee

Italian sonnet/Petrarchan sonnet

octave presents a problem;sestet provides an answer

English Sonnet/Shakespearean sonnet

three quatrains and a couplet; detailed development of problem in quatrains and a quick summary and solution in couplet

Spenserian Sonnet

three quatrains and a couplet; final couplet makes a key point

author's purpose

an author's intent when writing a literary work

Sonnet XII

Francesco Petrarch; youth gone

On Monsieur's Departure

Elizabeth I; forced to hide feelings

Speech to the Troops at Tillbury

Elizabeth I; committed to country

The Lover Showeth How He is Forsaken

Sir Thomas Wyatt; lovers flee

Whoso List to Hunt

Sir Thomas Wyatt; deer hunt

Sonnet 30

Edmund Spenser; ice and fire

Sonnet 75

Edmund Spenser; name in sand

Sonnet 31

Sir Philip Sidney; sad moon

Sonnet 39

Sir Philip Sidney; sleep

Passionate Shepherd

Christopher Marlowe; promises everything

Nymph's Reply

Sir Walter Raleigh; things don't last

Of Studies

Sir Francis Bacon; studies

Sonnet 116

William Shakespeare; love is unchanging

Sonnet 130

William Shakespeare; ugly lover

Sonnet 73

William Shakespeare; yellow leaves

Sonnet 29

William Shakespeare; lover changes mood

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